Electroencephalographic Cordance Patterns Distinguish Exceptional Clinical Responders with Fibromyalgia to Individualized Homeopathic Medicines

Iris R. Bell, Daniel A. Lewis, Gary E Schwartz, Sabrina E. Lewis, Opher Caspi, Anne Scott, Audrey J. Brooks, Carol M. Baldwin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

33 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives: To characterize initial central nervous system responses to olfactory administration of homeopathic remedies as biomarkers for subsequently exceptional, simillimum-like clinical outcomes at a systemic level (i.e., both locally and globally). Design: Double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Setting: A private homeopathic clinic in Phoenix, AZ, and a university laboratory in Tucson, AZ. Patients: Sixty-two (62) persons with physician-confirmed fibromyalgia (FM) (mean age, 49 years; 94% women) enrolled; 53 completed the 3-month assessment visit. Exceptional responders (n = 6, 23% of active treatment group; none on placebo) were those with improvements in the top one-third for both tender point pain and global health ratings after 3 months. Intervention: Patients took daily oral doses of treatment solution in LM (1/50,000 dilution) potency (active group received individualized remedy; placebo group received plain solvent). Dependent measures: Baseline and 3-month difference scores for initial prefrontal electroencephalographic alpha frequency cordance (EEG-C, a correlate of functional brain activity) during 16 pairs of randomized, double-blinded bottle sniffs (treatment minus control solutions). Results: Exceptional responders versus other patients exhibited significantly more negative initial EEG-C difference scores at prefrontal sites. Right prefrontal cordance findings correlated with subsequently reduced pain (r = 0.85, p = 0.03), better global health (r = -0.73, p = 0.10), and trait absorption (genetically determined ability to focus attention selectively and fully) (r = 0.91, p = 0.012). Conclusions: These observations suggest prefrontal EEG-C as an early biomarker of individualized homeopathic medicine effects in patients with FM who later exhibit exceptional outcomes. Prefrontal cortex controls executive function; including ability to redirect attention. Interactions between executive function, absorption, and the simillimum remedy could facilitate exceptional responses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)285-299
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine
Volume10
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2004

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Precision Medicine
Fibromyalgia
Electroencephalography
Aptitude
Executive Function
Placebos
Biomarkers
Materia Medica
Pain
Prefrontal Cortex
Therapeutics
Central Nervous System
Randomized Controlled Trials
Physicians
Brain
Global Health

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Complementary and alternative medicine
  • Nursing(all)

Cite this

Electroencephalographic Cordance Patterns Distinguish Exceptional Clinical Responders with Fibromyalgia to Individualized Homeopathic Medicines. / Bell, Iris R.; Lewis, Daniel A.; Schwartz, Gary E; Lewis, Sabrina E.; Caspi, Opher; Scott, Anne; Brooks, Audrey J.; Baldwin, Carol M.

In: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Vol. 10, No. 2, 04.2004, p. 285-299.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bell, Iris R. ; Lewis, Daniel A. ; Schwartz, Gary E ; Lewis, Sabrina E. ; Caspi, Opher ; Scott, Anne ; Brooks, Audrey J. ; Baldwin, Carol M. / Electroencephalographic Cordance Patterns Distinguish Exceptional Clinical Responders with Fibromyalgia to Individualized Homeopathic Medicines. In: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2004 ; Vol. 10, No. 2. pp. 285-299.
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