A complete theoretical approach to the electromagnetic properties of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) is presented. The solution of the 3D vector Maxwell equations is obtained by means of a generalized vectorial transform matrix. Results for the characterization of laser modes include modal frequencies, cavity losses, and eigenmode light-field vector patterns. As an example, modal properties of air-post index-guided VCSELs are analyzed for various cavity design parameters. Scattering losses due to modal mismatch at cavity interfaces are found to be small and, hence, would not overcompensate potential cavity design improvements based on increased relative index steps.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)