Electromagnetic force density in electrically and magnetically polarizable media

Iñigo Liberal, Iñigo Ederra, Ramón Gonzalo, Richard W Ziolkowski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The force density induced by electromagnetic fields in electrically and magnetically polarizable media is studied analytically. Different formulations of the force density as a function of field-related quantities, including the spatial derivatives of the fields, gradients of the field intensity, phase gradients, electromagnetic power flow (Poynting vector field), and kinetic momentum flow, are introduced. These formulations retain certain symmetries with respect to the force expressions introduced in previous works for an isolated particle but also point out fundamental differences, such as the suppression of recoil forces, negative radiation pressure, and far-field gradient forces. It is shown how these analytical formulations also provide the necessary means to elucidate the sign of the force density in complex media and how they can assist the design of sources to manipulate clouds of particles. The theory is illustrated with numerical examples of an insulated Hertzian dipole immersed in different media, including lossy dielectrics, media with negative permittivity and permeability, and zero-index media.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number053808
JournalPhysical Review A
Volume88
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 7 2013

Fingerprint

electromagnetism
formulations
gradients
lossy media
radiation pressure
pressure distribution
far fields
permeability
electromagnetic fields
retarding
permittivity
dipoles
momentum
kinetics
symmetry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Cite this

Electromagnetic force density in electrically and magnetically polarizable media. / Liberal, Iñigo; Ederra, Iñigo; Gonzalo, Ramón; Ziolkowski, Richard W.

In: Physical Review A, Vol. 88, No. 5, 053808, 07.11.2013.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Liberal, Iñigo ; Ederra, Iñigo ; Gonzalo, Ramón ; Ziolkowski, Richard W. / Electromagnetic force density in electrically and magnetically polarizable media. In: Physical Review A. 2013 ; Vol. 88, No. 5.
@article{41777454ff7d4fc9943133cf41fe1e68,
title = "Electromagnetic force density in electrically and magnetically polarizable media",
abstract = "The force density induced by electromagnetic fields in electrically and magnetically polarizable media is studied analytically. Different formulations of the force density as a function of field-related quantities, including the spatial derivatives of the fields, gradients of the field intensity, phase gradients, electromagnetic power flow (Poynting vector field), and kinetic momentum flow, are introduced. These formulations retain certain symmetries with respect to the force expressions introduced in previous works for an isolated particle but also point out fundamental differences, such as the suppression of recoil forces, negative radiation pressure, and far-field gradient forces. It is shown how these analytical formulations also provide the necessary means to elucidate the sign of the force density in complex media and how they can assist the design of sources to manipulate clouds of particles. The theory is illustrated with numerical examples of an insulated Hertzian dipole immersed in different media, including lossy dielectrics, media with negative permittivity and permeability, and zero-index media.",
author = "I{\~n}igo Liberal and I{\~n}igo Ederra and Ram{\'o}n Gonzalo and Ziolkowski, {Richard W}",
year = "2013",
month = "11",
day = "7",
doi = "10.1103/PhysRevA.88.053808",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "88",
journal = "Physical Review A",
issn = "2469-9926",
publisher = "American Physical Society",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Electromagnetic force density in electrically and magnetically polarizable media

AU - Liberal, Iñigo

AU - Ederra, Iñigo

AU - Gonzalo, Ramón

AU - Ziolkowski, Richard W

PY - 2013/11/7

Y1 - 2013/11/7

N2 - The force density induced by electromagnetic fields in electrically and magnetically polarizable media is studied analytically. Different formulations of the force density as a function of field-related quantities, including the spatial derivatives of the fields, gradients of the field intensity, phase gradients, electromagnetic power flow (Poynting vector field), and kinetic momentum flow, are introduced. These formulations retain certain symmetries with respect to the force expressions introduced in previous works for an isolated particle but also point out fundamental differences, such as the suppression of recoil forces, negative radiation pressure, and far-field gradient forces. It is shown how these analytical formulations also provide the necessary means to elucidate the sign of the force density in complex media and how they can assist the design of sources to manipulate clouds of particles. The theory is illustrated with numerical examples of an insulated Hertzian dipole immersed in different media, including lossy dielectrics, media with negative permittivity and permeability, and zero-index media.

AB - The force density induced by electromagnetic fields in electrically and magnetically polarizable media is studied analytically. Different formulations of the force density as a function of field-related quantities, including the spatial derivatives of the fields, gradients of the field intensity, phase gradients, electromagnetic power flow (Poynting vector field), and kinetic momentum flow, are introduced. These formulations retain certain symmetries with respect to the force expressions introduced in previous works for an isolated particle but also point out fundamental differences, such as the suppression of recoil forces, negative radiation pressure, and far-field gradient forces. It is shown how these analytical formulations also provide the necessary means to elucidate the sign of the force density in complex media and how they can assist the design of sources to manipulate clouds of particles. The theory is illustrated with numerical examples of an insulated Hertzian dipole immersed in different media, including lossy dielectrics, media with negative permittivity and permeability, and zero-index media.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84887511848&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84887511848&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.053808

DO - 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.053808

M3 - Article

VL - 88

JO - Physical Review A

JF - Physical Review A

SN - 2469-9926

IS - 5

M1 - 053808

ER -