Emerging Disease Issues and Fungal Pathogens Associated with HIV Infection

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

97 Scopus citations

Abstract

Fungal diseases are increasing among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1. Infections due to Candida and Cryptococcus are the most common. Although mucocutaneous candidiasis can be treated with oral antifungal agents, increasing evidence suggests that prolonged use of these drugs results in both clinical and microbiologic resistance. The optimal therapy for cryptococcal meningitis remains unresolved, although initial treatment with amphotericin B, followed by life-long maintenance therapy with fluconazole, appears promising. Most cases of histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and blastomycosis occur in regions where their causative organisms are endemic, and increasing data suggest that a significant proportion of disease is due to recent infection. Aspergillosis is increasing dramatically as an opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients, in part because of the increased incidence of neutropenia and corticosteroid use in these patients. Infection due to Penicillium marneffei is a rapidly growing problem among HIV-infected patients living in Southeast Asia. Although the advent of oral azole antifungal drugs has made primary prophylaxis against fungal diseases in HIV-infected patients feasible, many questions remain to be answered before the preventive use of antifungal drugs can be advocated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)109-116
Number of pages8
JournalEmerging infectious diseases
Volume2
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1996

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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