Endovascular stent-graft management of thoracic aortic diseases

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Abstract

The traditional standard therapy for descending thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is open operative repair with graft replacement of the diseased aortic segment. Despite important advances in surgical techniques, anesthetic management, and post-operative care over the last 30 years, the mortality and morbidity of surgery remains considerable, especially in patients at high risk for thoracotomy because of coexisting severe cardiopulmonary abnormalities or other medical diseases. The advent of endovascular stent-graft technology provides an alternative to open surgery for selected patients with TAA. The initial experience suggests that stent-graft therapy potentially may reduce the operative risk, hospital stay and procedural expenses of TAA repair. These potential benefits are especially attractive for patients at high risk for open TAA repair. Current results of endovascular TAA therapy document operative mortalities of between 0 and 4%, aneurysm thrombosis in 90 and 100% of cases, and paraplegia as a complication in 0 and 1.6% of patients. The early success of stent-graft repair of TAA has fostered the application of these devices for the management of a wide variety of thoracic aortic pathologies, including acute and chronic dissection, intramural hematoma, penetrating ulcer, traumatic injuries, and other diseases. The results of prospective controlled trials that compare the outcomes of stent-graft therapy with those of surgical treatment in patients with specific types of aortic disease are anxiously awaited before recommendations regarding the general use of these new devices can be made with confidence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)42-49
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean Journal of Radiology
Volume39
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2001
Externally publishedYes

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Keywords

  • Acute dissection
  • Chronic dissection
  • Endovascular repair
  • Grafts
  • Thoracic aneurysm

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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