TY - GEN

T1 - Energy, momentum, and force in classical electrodynamics

T2 - Metamaterials: Fundamentals and Applications II

AU - Mansuripur, Masud

AU - Zakharian, Armis R.

PY - 2009/11/2

Y1 - 2009/11/2

N2 - The classical theory of electromagnetism is based on Maxwell's macroscopic equations, an energy postulate, a momentum postulate, and a generalized form of the Lorentz law of force. These seven postulates constitute the foundation of a complete and consistent theory, thus eliminating the need for physical models of polarization P and magnetization M - these being the distinguishing features of Maxwell's macroscopic equations. In the proposed formulation, P(r,t) and M(r,t) are arbitrary functions of space and time, their physical properties being embedded in the seven postulates of the theory. The postulates are self-consistent, comply with special relativity, and satisfy the laws of conservation of energy, linear momentum, and angular momentum. The Abraham momentum density pEM(r,t)=E(r, t)×H(r,t)/c2 emerges as the universal electromagnetic momentum that does not depend on whether the field is propagating or evanescent, and whether or not the host media are homogeneous, transparent, isotropic, linear, dispersive, magnetic, hysteretic, negative-index, etc. Any variation with time of the total electromagnetic momentum of a closed system results in a force exerted on the material media within the system in accordance with the generalized Lorentz law.

AB - The classical theory of electromagnetism is based on Maxwell's macroscopic equations, an energy postulate, a momentum postulate, and a generalized form of the Lorentz law of force. These seven postulates constitute the foundation of a complete and consistent theory, thus eliminating the need for physical models of polarization P and magnetization M - these being the distinguishing features of Maxwell's macroscopic equations. In the proposed formulation, P(r,t) and M(r,t) are arbitrary functions of space and time, their physical properties being embedded in the seven postulates of the theory. The postulates are self-consistent, comply with special relativity, and satisfy the laws of conservation of energy, linear momentum, and angular momentum. The Abraham momentum density pEM(r,t)=E(r, t)×H(r,t)/c2 emerges as the universal electromagnetic momentum that does not depend on whether the field is propagating or evanescent, and whether or not the host media are homogeneous, transparent, isotropic, linear, dispersive, magnetic, hysteretic, negative-index, etc. Any variation with time of the total electromagnetic momentum of a closed system results in a force exerted on the material media within the system in accordance with the generalized Lorentz law.

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U2 - 10.1117/12.825510

DO - 10.1117/12.825510

M3 - Conference contribution

AN - SCOPUS:70350423914

SN - 9780819476821

T3 - Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering

BT - Metamaterials

Y2 - 2 August 2009 through 5 August 2009

ER -