### Abstract

The classical theory of electromagnetism is based on Maxwell's macroscopic equations, an energy postulate, a momentum postulate, and a generalized form of the Lorentz law of force. These seven postulates constitute the foundation of a complete and consistent theory, thus eliminating the need for physical models of polarization P and magnetization M - these being the distinguishing features of Maxwell's macroscopic equations. In the proposed formulation, P(r,t) and M(r,t) are arbitrary functions of space and time, their physical properties being embedded in the seven postulates of the theory. The postulates are self-consistent, comply with special relativity, and satisfy the laws of conservation of energy, linear momentum, and angular momentum. The Abraham momentum density p_{EM}(r,t)=E(r, t)×H(r,t)/c^{2} emerges as the universal electromagnetic momentum that does not depend on whether the field is propagating or evanescent, and whether or not the host media are homogeneous, transparent, isotropic, linear, dispersive, magnetic, hysteretic, negative-index, etc. Any variation with time of the total electromagnetic momentum of a closed system results in a force exerted on the material media within the system in accordance with the generalized Lorentz law.

Original language | English (US) |
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Title of host publication | Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering |

Volume | 7392 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - 2009 |

Event | Metamaterials: Fundamentals and Applications II - San Diego, CA, United States Duration: Aug 2 2009 → Aug 5 2009 |

### Other

Other | Metamaterials: Fundamentals and Applications II |
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Country | United States |

City | San Diego, CA |

Period | 8/2/09 → 8/5/09 |

### Fingerprint

### ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Applied Mathematics
- Computer Science Applications
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Condensed Matter Physics

### Cite this

*Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering*(Vol. 7392). [73920Q] https://doi.org/10.1117/12.825510

**Energy, momentum, and force in classical electrodynamics : Application to negative-index media.** / Mansuripur, Masud; Zakharian, Armis R.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceeding › Conference contribution

*Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering.*vol. 7392, 73920Q, Metamaterials: Fundamentals and Applications II, San Diego, CA, United States, 8/2/09. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.825510

}

TY - GEN

T1 - Energy, momentum, and force in classical electrodynamics

T2 - Application to negative-index media

AU - Mansuripur, Masud

AU - Zakharian, Armis R.

PY - 2009

Y1 - 2009

N2 - The classical theory of electromagnetism is based on Maxwell's macroscopic equations, an energy postulate, a momentum postulate, and a generalized form of the Lorentz law of force. These seven postulates constitute the foundation of a complete and consistent theory, thus eliminating the need for physical models of polarization P and magnetization M - these being the distinguishing features of Maxwell's macroscopic equations. In the proposed formulation, P(r,t) and M(r,t) are arbitrary functions of space and time, their physical properties being embedded in the seven postulates of the theory. The postulates are self-consistent, comply with special relativity, and satisfy the laws of conservation of energy, linear momentum, and angular momentum. The Abraham momentum density pEM(r,t)=E(r, t)×H(r,t)/c2 emerges as the universal electromagnetic momentum that does not depend on whether the field is propagating or evanescent, and whether or not the host media are homogeneous, transparent, isotropic, linear, dispersive, magnetic, hysteretic, negative-index, etc. Any variation with time of the total electromagnetic momentum of a closed system results in a force exerted on the material media within the system in accordance with the generalized Lorentz law.

AB - The classical theory of electromagnetism is based on Maxwell's macroscopic equations, an energy postulate, a momentum postulate, and a generalized form of the Lorentz law of force. These seven postulates constitute the foundation of a complete and consistent theory, thus eliminating the need for physical models of polarization P and magnetization M - these being the distinguishing features of Maxwell's macroscopic equations. In the proposed formulation, P(r,t) and M(r,t) are arbitrary functions of space and time, their physical properties being embedded in the seven postulates of the theory. The postulates are self-consistent, comply with special relativity, and satisfy the laws of conservation of energy, linear momentum, and angular momentum. The Abraham momentum density pEM(r,t)=E(r, t)×H(r,t)/c2 emerges as the universal electromagnetic momentum that does not depend on whether the field is propagating or evanescent, and whether or not the host media are homogeneous, transparent, isotropic, linear, dispersive, magnetic, hysteretic, negative-index, etc. Any variation with time of the total electromagnetic momentum of a closed system results in a force exerted on the material media within the system in accordance with the generalized Lorentz law.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=70350423914&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=70350423914&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1117/12.825510

DO - 10.1117/12.825510

M3 - Conference contribution

AN - SCOPUS:70350423914

SN - 9780819476821

VL - 7392

BT - Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering

ER -