This study presents a performance comparison of Fe(II)-catalyzed sodium percarbonate (SPC), Fe(II)-EDDS-catalyzed SPC, and of the innovative hydroxylamine hydrochloride (HA)-Fe(II)-EDDS-catalyzed SPC for the degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in water. TCE degradation was greater in the Fe(II)-EDDS-catalyzed SPC system compared to the Fe(II)-catalyzed SPC system, indicating the effectiveness of adding EDDS as an enhancement factor for the removal of TCE. Moreover, TCE degradation was faster in the HA-Fe(II)-EDDS-catalyzed SPC system compared to the Fe(II)-EDDS-catalyzed SPC system, illustrating that HA can play a synergistic role in TCE degradation. Analysis of iron distribution in the three systems demonstrated that EDDS addition maintained iron in soluble form, and that the generation of soluble ferrous from ferric iron was expedited with addition of HA. Studies using nitrobenzene and carbon tetrachloride probes provided insights on the generation of hydroxyl radical (HO•) and superoxide anion radical (O2 •−) in the three systems. A gradual increasing contribution of O2 •− to TCE removal in Fe(II)-catalyzed SPC, Fe(II)-EDDS-catalyzed SPC, and HA-Fe(II)-EDDS-catalyzed SPC systems was verified through free-radical scavenger tests. Finally, monitoring of Cl− concentrations manifested the complete dechlorination of TCE. A possible mechanism of TCE degradation involving two pathways of HO• oxidation and O2 •− reaction was proposed.
- Groundwater remediation
- Sodium percarbonate
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Chemistry
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis