Enhanced photoemission spectroscopy for verification of high-risk i.v. medications

Yaman Kaakeh, Hanna Phan, Brian D. DeSmet, Deborah A. Pasko, Denise K. Glenn, James G. Stevenson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Purpose. The sensitivity and specificity of enhanced photoemission spectroscopy (EPS) for performing an automated final check of compounded i.v. admixtures at a pediatric hospital pharmacy were studied. Methods. A tabletop EPS device was used to test samples of seven high-risk drug-diluent combinations compounded in the pharmacy; the drugs were vancomycin, lorazepam, morphine, insulin, hydromorphone, gentamicin, and epinephrine. Ten sets of samples were prepared for each drug. Typically, a sample set consisted of dilutions ranging from 10-fold above to 10-fold below the targeted concentration. Testing was performed twice weekly between November 2005 and March 2006. Results. The EPS device detected errors departing from the targeted concentration by 20% or more with a sensitivity of at least 95%. Specificity in distinguishing among test medications at targeted concentrations was 100%. The percentage of passing samples with intermediate concentrations varied among the drugs. Conclusion. A tabletop EPS device demonstrated acceptable sensitivity and specificity for validating the identity and concentrations of selected high-risk i.v. medications compounded for pediatric patients.The device may help prevent clinically important medication errors caused by inaccurate compounding.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)49-54
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican Journal of Health-System Pharmacy
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Aminoglycosides
  • Antibiotics
  • Anxiolytics, sedatives and hypnotics
  • Concentration
  • Control, quality
  • Diluents
  • Epinephrine
  • Errors, medication
  • Gentamicin
  • Hydromorphone
  • Injections
  • Insulin
  • Insulins
  • Lorazepam
  • Morphine
  • Opiates
  • Pediatrics
  • Spectrometry
  • Stability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Health Policy


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