Enhanced visualization of intravascular and left atrial appendage thrombus with the use of a thrombus-targeting ultrasonographic contrast agent (MRX-408A1): In vivo experimental echocardiographic studies

M. Takeuchi, K. Ogunyankin, N. G. Pandian, T. P. McCreery, R. H. Sweitzer, V. E. Caldwell, E. C. Unger, E. Avelar, M. Sheahan, R. Connolly

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

74 Scopus citations

Abstract

Echocardiographic evaluation for the recognition of intravascular and left atrial appendage thrombus remains a difficult problem. A thrombus- specific ultrasonographic contrast agent has the potential for an alternative approach for their delineation. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of thrombus-specific contrast agent MRX-408A1 for the detection of acute experimentally created intravascular and intracardiac thrombus. In the first study, we created inferior vena cava thrombus in 9 dogs. With the use of fundamental 2-dimensional echocardiography imaging, we recorded images of the inferior vena cava thrombus at baseline (n = 9), with the thrombus- specific contrast agent MRX-408A1 (n = 9), and with nonspecific contrast agent MRX-113 (n = 6). In the second study, we created a left atrial appendage thrombus in 8 dogs. We imaged left atrial appendage thrombus at baseline and during MRX-113 and MRX-408A1 infusion. Thrombus was successfully created in all dogs in study 1 and in 6 of 8 dogs in study 2. MRX-408A1 produced a visually apparent increase in ultrasonographic contrast enhancement of the thrombus in all cases in which thrombus was found on autopsy. In both studies, MRX-408A1 increased the videointensity of the thrombus significantly compared with baseline images and images obtained during MRX-113 infusion. The size of the visually detectable thrombus on the image was also significantly larger during MRX-408A1 infusion than at baseline and during MRX-113 infusion. These data provide in vivo demonstration of the efficacy of a thrombus-specific contrast agent, MRX- 408A1, in the detection of acute intravascular and intracardiac thrombus. It has the potential to improve the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography for the detection of acute thrombi at various cardiovascular sites in the clinical setting.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1015-1021
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the American Society of Echocardiography
Volume12
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - 1999
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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