The overall objective of our study is to evaluate the potential for real-time monitoring of chemical and biological contaminants using in-line water quality sensors including: Safire On-line Florescence Sensor, the HACH Guardian Blue Monitoring Platform; the JMAR BioSentry unit; and the S::CAN spectro::lyser technology. For biological contaminants we evaluated the BioSentry sensor for the detection of Escherichia coli and Bacillus thurengiensis (a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis). The sensor was responsive to an increase in E. coli concentrations from 103 cfu/mL to 106 cfu/mL. The minimum threshold response for detection of B. thuringiensis spores was also evaluated. Specifically, spores were injected into either deionized (DI), or raw (unfiltered) tap water. The sensor responded to an increase in spore concentration over the range of 102 - 105 spores/ml. We also have proof of concept for AOP destruction of trace organics and documentation of destruction in real time.