Error analysis of ratiometric imaging of extracellular pH in a window chamber model

Yuxiang Lin, Tzu Yu Wu, Arthur F. Gmitro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Scopus citations


Ratiometric fluorescence-imaging technique is commonly used to measure extracellular pH in tumors and surrounding tissue within a dorsal skin-fold window chamber. Using a pH-sensitive fluorophore such as carboxy SNARF-1 one can measure pH distributions with high precision. However, it is often observed that the measured pH is lower than expected, with a bias that varies from one image to another. A comprehensive analysis of possible error sources is presented. These error sources include photon noise, estimator bias, instrument errors, temperature, and calibration errors from biological factors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number046004-1
JournalJournal of biomedical optics
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2012



  • Fluorescence
  • Image quality
  • Imaging
  • Microscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Biomaterials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biomedical Engineering

Cite this