Ethonafide-induced cytotoxicity is mediated by topoisomerase II inhibition in prostate cancer cells

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Abstract

Ethonafide is an anthracene-containing derivative of amonafide that belongs to the azonafide series of anticancer agents. The lack of cross-resistance in multidrug-resistant cancer cell lines and the absence of a quinone and hydroquinone moiety make ethonafide a potentially less cardiotoxic replacement for existing anthracene-containing anticancer agents. For this study, we investigated the anticancer activity and mechanism of ethonafide in human prostate cancer cell lines. Ethonafide was cytotoxic against three human prostate cancer cell lines at nanomolar concentrations. Ethonafide was found to be better tolerated and more effective at inhibiting tumor growth compared with mitoxantrone in a human xenograft tumor regression mouse model. Mechanistically, we found that ethonafide inhibited topoisomerase II activity by stabilizing the enzyme-DNA complex, involving both topoisomerase IIγ and -β. In addition, ethonafide induced a potent G2 cell cycle arrest in the DU 145 human prostate cancer cell line. By creating stable cell lines with decreased expression of topoisomerase IIα or -β, we found that a decrease in topoisomerase IIα protein expression renders the cell line resistant to ethonafide. The decrease in sensitivity to ethonafide was associated with a decrease in DNA damage and an increase in DNA repair as measured by the neutral comet assay. These data demonstrate that ethonafide is a topoisomerase II poison and that it is topoisomerase IIα-specific in the DU 145 human prostate cancer cell line.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1109-1117
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Volume321
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2007

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Type II DNA Topoisomerase
Prostatic Neoplasms
Cell Line
amonafide
Antineoplastic Agents
2-(2'-(dimethylamino)ethyl)-1,2-dihydro-7-ethoxydibenz(de,h)isoquinoline-1,3-dione
G2 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints
Neoplasms
Mitoxantrone
Comet Assay
Poisons
Multiple Drug Resistance
Heterografts
DNA Repair
DNA Damage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology

Cite this

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title = "Ethonafide-induced cytotoxicity is mediated by topoisomerase II inhibition in prostate cancer cells",
abstract = "Ethonafide is an anthracene-containing derivative of amonafide that belongs to the azonafide series of anticancer agents. The lack of cross-resistance in multidrug-resistant cancer cell lines and the absence of a quinone and hydroquinone moiety make ethonafide a potentially less cardiotoxic replacement for existing anthracene-containing anticancer agents. For this study, we investigated the anticancer activity and mechanism of ethonafide in human prostate cancer cell lines. Ethonafide was cytotoxic against three human prostate cancer cell lines at nanomolar concentrations. Ethonafide was found to be better tolerated and more effective at inhibiting tumor growth compared with mitoxantrone in a human xenograft tumor regression mouse model. Mechanistically, we found that ethonafide inhibited topoisomerase II activity by stabilizing the enzyme-DNA complex, involving both topoisomerase IIγ and -β. In addition, ethonafide induced a potent G2 cell cycle arrest in the DU 145 human prostate cancer cell line. By creating stable cell lines with decreased expression of topoisomerase IIα or -β, we found that a decrease in topoisomerase IIα protein expression renders the cell line resistant to ethonafide. The decrease in sensitivity to ethonafide was associated with a decrease in DNA damage and an increase in DNA repair as measured by the neutral comet assay. These data demonstrate that ethonafide is a topoisomerase II poison and that it is topoisomerase IIα-specific in the DU 145 human prostate cancer cell line.",
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