Evaluation of a photocatalytic reactor membrane pilot system for the removal of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds from water

Mark J. Benotti, Benjamin D. Stanford, Eric C. Wert, Shane A. Snyder

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185 Scopus citations


A photocatalytic reactor membrane pilot system, employing UV/TiO2 photocatalysis, was evaluated for its ability to remove thirty-two pharmaceuticals, endocrine disrupting compounds, and estrogenic activity from water. Concentrations of all compounds decreased following treatment, and removal followed pseudo-first-order kinetics as a function of the amount of treatment. Twenty-nine of the targeted compounds in addition to total estrogenic activity were greater than 70% removed while only three compounds were less than 50% removed following the highest level of treatment (4.24 kW h/m3). No estrogenically active transformation products were formed during treatment. Additionally, the unit was operated in photolytic mode (UV only) and photolytic plus H2O2 mode (UV/H2O2) to determine the relative amount of energy required. Based on the electrical energy per order (EEO), the unit achieved the greatest efficiency when operated in photolytic plus H2O2 mode for the conditions tested.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1513-1522
Number of pages10
JournalWater research
Issue number6
StatePublished - Apr 2009



  • Advanced oxidation process (AOP)
  • Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs)
  • Estrogenic activity
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Photocatalysis
  • Titanium dioxide (TiO)
  • Water treatment
  • Yeast estrogen screen (YES) assay

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecological Modeling
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution

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