Evidence for production of single top quarks

V. M. Abazov, B. Abbott, M. Abolins, B. S. Acharya, M. Adams, T. Adams, E. Aguilo, S. H. Ahn, M. Ahsan, G. D. Alexeev, G. Alkhazov, A. Alton, G. Alverson, G. A. Alves, M. Anastasoaie, L. S. Ancu, T. Andeen, S. Anderson, M. S. Anzelc, M. Aoki & 515 others Y. Arnoud, M. Arov, M. Arthaud, A. Askew, B. Åsman, A. C S Assis Jesus, O. Atramentov, C. Avila, C. Ay, F. Badaud, A. Baden, L. Bagby, B. Baldin, D. V. Bandurin, P. Banerjee, S. Banerjee, E. Barberis, A. F. Barfuss, P. Bargassa, P. Baringer, J. Barreto, J. F. Bartlett, U. Bassler, D. Bauer, S. Beale, A. Bean, M. Begalli, M. Begel, C. Belanger-Champagne, L. Bellantoni, A. Bellavance, J. A. Benitez, S. B. Beri, G. Bernardi, R. Bernhard, I. Bertram, M. Besançon, R. Beuselinck, V. A. Bezzubov, P. C. Bhat, V. Bhatnagar, C. Biscarat, G. Blazey, F. Blekman, S. Blessing, D. Bloch, K. Bloom, A. Boehnlein, D. Boline, T. A. Bolton, E. E. Boos, G. Borissov, T. Bose, A. Brandt, R. Brock, G. Brooijmans, A. Bross, D. Brown, N. J. Buchanan, D. Buchholz, M. Buehler, V. Buescher, V. Bunichev, S. Burdin, S. Burke, T. H. Burnett, C. P. Buszello, J. M. Butler, P. Calfayan, S. Calvet, J. Cammin, W. Carvalho, B. C K Casey, H. Castilla-Valdez, S. Chakrabarti, D. Chakraborty, K. Chan, K. M. Chan, A. Chandra, F. Charles, Elliott C Cheu, F. Chevallier, D. K. Cho, S. Choi, B. Choudhary, L. Christofek, T. Christoudias, S. Cihangir, D. Claes, Y. Coadou, M. Cooke, W. E. Cooper, M. Corcoran, F. Couderc, M. C. Cousinou, S. Crépé-Renaudin, D. Cutts, M. Ćwiok, H. Da Motta, A. Das, G. Davies, K. De, S. J. De Jong, E. De La Cruz-Burelo, C. De Oliveira Martins, J. D. Degenhardt, F. Déliot, M. Demarteau, R. Demina, D. Denisov, S. P. Denisov, S. Desai, H. T. Diehl, M. Diesburg, A. Dominguez, H. Dong, L. V. Dudko, L. Duflot, S. R. Dugad, D. Duggan, A. Duperrin, J. Dyer, A. Dyshkant, M. Eads, D. Edmunds, J. Ellison, V. D. Elvira, Y. Enari, S. Eno, P. Ermolov, H. Evans, A. Evdokimov, V. N. Evdokimov, A. V. Ferapontov, T. Ferbel, F. Fiedler, F. Filthaut, W. Fisher, H. E. Fisk, M. Fortner, H. Fox, S. Fu, S. Fuess, T. Gadfort, C. F. Galea, E. Gallas, C. Garcia, A. Garcia-Bellido, V. Gavrilov, P. Gay, W. Geist, D. Gelé, C. E. Gerber, Y. Gershtein, D. Gillberg, G. Ginther, N. Gollub, B. Gómez, A. Goussiou, P. D. Grannis, H. Greenlee, Z. D. Greenwood, E. M. Gregores, G. Grenier, Ph Gris, J. F. Grivaz, A. Grohsjean, S. Grünendahl, M. W. Grünewald, F. Guo, J. Guo, G. Gutierrez, P. Gutierrez, A. Haas, N. J. Hadley, P. Haefner, S. Hagopian, J. Haley, I. Hall, R. E. Hall, L. Han, K. Harder, A. Harel, R. Harrington, J. M. Hauptman, R. Hauser, J. Hays, T. Hebbeker, D. Hedin, J. G. Hegeman, J. M. Heinmiller, A. P. Heinson, U. Heintz, C. Hensel, K. Herner, G. Hesketh, M. D. Hildreth, R. Hirosky, J. D. Hobbs, B. Hoeneisen, H. Hoeth, M. Hohlfeld, S. J. Hong, S. Hossain, P. Houben, Y. Hu, Z. Hubacek, V. Hynek, I. Iashvili, R. Illingworth, A. S. Ito, S. Jabeen, M. Jaffré, S. Jain, K. Jakobs, C. Jarvis, R. Jesik, Kenneth A Johns, C. Johnson, M. Johnson, A. Jonckheere, P. Jonsson, A. Juste, E. Kajfasz, A. M. Kalinin, J. M. Kalk, S. Kappler, D. Karmanov, P. A. Kasper, I. Katsanos, D. Kau, V. Kaushik, R. Kehoe, S. Kermiche, N. Khalatyan, A. Khanov, A. Kharchilava, Y. M. Kharzheev, D. Khatidze, T. J. Kim, M. H. Kirby, M. Kirsch, B. Klima, J. M. Kohli, J. P. Konrath, V. M. Korablev, A. V. Kozelov, J. Kraus, D. Krop, T. Kuhl, A. Kumar, A. Kupco, T. Kurča, J. Kvita, F. Lacroix, D. Lam, S. Lammers, G. Landsberg, P. Lebrun, W. M. Lee, A. Leflat, J. Lellouch, J. Leveque, J. Li, L. Li, Q. Z. Li, S. M. Lietti, J. G R Lima, D. Lincoln, J. Linnemann, V. V. Lipaev, R. Lipton, Y. Liu, Z. Liu, A. Lobodenko, M. Lokajicek, P. Love, H. J. Lubatti, R. Luna, A. L. Lyon, A. K A MacIel, D. Mackin, R. J. Madaras, P. Mättig, C. Magass, A. Magerkurth, P. K. Mal, H. B. Malbouisson, S. Malik, V. L. Malyshev, H. S. Mao, Y. Maravin, B. Martin, R. McCarthy, A. Melnitchouk, L. Mendoza, P. G. Mercadante, M. Merkin, K. W. Merritt, A. Meyer, J. Meyer, T. Millet, J. Mitrevski, J. Molina, R. K. Mommsen, N. K. Mondal, R. W. Moore, T. Moulik, G. S. Muanza, M. Mulders, M. Mulhearn, O. Mundal, L. Mundim, E. Nagy, M. Naimuddin, M. Narain, N. A. Naumann, H. A. Neal, J. P. Negret, P. Neustroev, H. Nilsen, H. Nogima, S. F. Novaes, T. Nunnemann, V. O'Dell, D. C. O'Neil, G. Obrant, C. Ochando, D. Onoprienko, N. Oshima, N. Osman, J. Osta, R. Otec, G. J. Otero Y Garzón, M. Owen, P. Padley, M. Pangilinan, N. Parashar, S. J. Park, S. K. Park, J. Parsons, R. Partridge, N. Parua, A. Patwa, G. Pawloski, B. Penning, M. Perfilov, K. Peters, Y. Peters, P. Pétroff, M. Petteni, R. Piegaia, J. Piper, M. A. Pleier, P. L M Podesta-Lerma, V. M. Podstavkov, Y. Pogorelov, M. E. Pol, P. Polozov, B. G. Pope, A. V. Popov, C. Potter, W. L. Prado Da Silva, H. B. Prosper, S. Protopopescu, J. Qian, A. Quadt, B. Quinn, A. Rakitine, M. S. Rangel, K. Ranjan, P. N. Ratoff, P. Renkel, S. Reucroft, P. Rich, J. Rieger, M. Rijssenbeek, I. Ripp-Baudot, F. Rizatdinova, S. Robinson, R. F. Rodrigues, M. Rominsky, C. Royon, P. Rubinov, R. Ruchti, G. Safronov, G. Sajot, A. Sánchez-Hernández, M. P. Sanders, A. Santoro, G. Savage, L. Sawyer, T. Scanlon, D. Schaile, R. D. Schamberger, Y. Scheglov, H. Schellman, T. Schliephake, C. Schwanenberger, A. Schwartzman, R. Schwienhorst, J. Sekaric, H. Severini, E. Shabalina, M. Shamim, V. Shary, A. A. Shchukin, R. K. Shivpuri, V. Siccardi, V. Simak, V. Sirotenko, P. Skubic, P. Slattery, D. Smirnov, G. R. Snow, J. Snow, S. Snyder, S. Söldner-Rembold, L. Sonnenschein, A. Sopczak, M. Sosebee, K. Soustruznik, B. Spurlock, J. Stark, J. Steele, V. Stolin, D. A. Stoyanova, J. Strandberg, S. Strandberg, M. A. Strang, E. Strauss, M. Strauss, R. Ströhmer, D. Strom, L. Stutte, S. Sumowidagdo, P. Svoisky, A. Sznajder, P. Tamburello, A. Tanasijczuk, W. Taylor, J. Temple, B. Tiller, F. Tissandier, M. Titov, V. V. Tokmenin, T. Toole, I. Torchiani, T. Trefzger, D. Tsybychev, B. Tuchming, C. Tully, P. M. Tuts, R. Unalan, L. Uvarov, S. Uvarov, S. Uzunyan, B. Vachon, P. J. Van Den Berg, R. Van Kooten, W. M. Van Leeuwen, N. Varelas, Erich W Varnes, I. A. Vasilyev, M. Vaupel, P. Verdier, L. S. Vertogradov, M. Verzocchi, M. Vetterli, F. Villeneuve-Seguier, P. Vint, P. Vokac, E. Von Toerne, M. Voutilainen, R. Wagner, H. D. Wahl, L. Wang, M. H L S Wang, J. Warchol, G. Watts, M. Wayne, G. Weber, M. Weber, L. Welty-Rieger, A. Wenger, N. Wermes, M. Wetstein, A. White, D. Wicke, G. W. Wilson, S. J. Wimpenny, M. Wobisch, D. R. Wood, T. R. Wyatt, Y. Xie, S. Yacoob, R. Yamada, M. Yan, T. Yasuda, Y. A. Yatsunenko, K. Yip, H. D. Yoo, S. W. Youn, J. Yu, A. Zatserklyaniy, C. Zeitnitz, T. Zhao, B. Zhou, J. Zhu, M. Zielinski, D. Zieminska, A. Zieminski, L. Zivkovic, V. Zutshi, E. G. Zverev

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

61 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We present first evidence for the production of single top quarks in the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron pp̄ collider. The standard model predicts that the electroweak interaction can produce a top quark together with an antibottom quark or light quark, without the antiparticle top-quark partner that is always produced from strong-coupling processes. Top quarks were first observed in pair production in 1995, and since then, single top-quark production has been searched for in ever larger data sets. In this analysis, we select events from a 0.9fb-1 data set that have an electron or muon and missing transverse energy from the decay of a W boson from the top-quark decay, and two, three, or four jets, with one or two of the jets identified as originating from a b hadron decay. The selected events are mostly backgrounds such as W+jets and tt̄ events, which we separate from the expected signals using three multivariate analysis techniques: boosted decision trees, Bayesian neural networks, and matrix-element calculations. A binned likelihood fit of the signal cross section plus background to the data from the combination of the results from the three analysis methods gives a cross section for single top-quark production of σ(pp̄→tb+X,tqb+X)=4.7±1.3pb. The probability to measure a cross section at this value or higher in the absence of signal is 0.014%, corresponding to a 3.6 standard deviation significance. The measured cross section value is compatible at the 10% level with the standard model prediction for electroweak top-quark production. We use the cross section measurement to directly determine the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark mixing matrix element that describes the Wtb coupling and find |Vtbf1L|=1.31-0.21+0.25, where f1L is a generic vector coupling. This model-independent measurement translates into 0.68<|Vtb|≤1 at the 95% C.L. in the standard model.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number012005
JournalPhysical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology
Volume78
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 14 2008

Fingerprint

Top Quark
quarks
Cross section
Quarks
Standard Model
Decay
cross sections
decay
Evidence
Multivariate Analysis
Strong Coupling
Bayesian Networks
Large Data Sets
Decision tree
Standard deviation
Bosons
antiparticles
Likelihood
Transverse
matrices

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)
  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Mathematical Physics

Cite this

Abazov, V. M., Abbott, B., Abolins, M., Acharya, B. S., Adams, M., Adams, T., ... Zverev, E. G. (2008). Evidence for production of single top quarks. Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology, 78(1), [012005]. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.78.012005

Evidence for production of single top quarks. / Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Aguilo, E.; Ahn, S. H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Ancu, L. S.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, S.; Anzelc, M. S.; Aoki, M.; Arnoud, Y.; Arov, M.; Arthaud, M.; Askew, A.; Åsman, B.; Assis Jesus, A. C S; Atramentov, O.; Avila, C.; Ay, C.; Badaud, F.; Baden, A.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Barfuss, A. F.; Bargassa, P.; Baringer, P.; Barreto, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bauer, D.; Beale, S.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Begel, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bellantoni, L.; Bellavance, A.; Benitez, J. A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Biscarat, C.; Blazey, G.; Blekman, F.; Blessing, S.; Bloch, D.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Bolton, T. A.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Bose, T.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, D.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Burke, S.; Burnett, T. H.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, J. M.; Calfayan, P.; Calvet, S.; Cammin, J.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, B. C K; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Charles, F.; Cheu, Elliott C; Chevallier, F.; Cho, D. K.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Christofek, L.; Christoudias, T.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Coadou, Y.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M. C.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cutts, D.; Ćwiok, M.; Da Motta, H.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; De, K.; De Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Degenhardt, J. D.; Déliot, F.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Dominguez, A.; Dong, H.; Dudko, L. V.; Duflot, L.; Dugad, S. R.; Duggan, D.; Duperrin, A.; Dyer, J.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Eno, S.; Ermolov, P.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Ferapontov, A. V.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fu, S.; Fuess, S.; Gadfort, T.; Galea, C. F.; Gallas, E.; Garcia, C.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, P.; Geist, W.; Gelé, D.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gillberg, D.; Ginther, G.; Gollub, N.; Gómez, B.; Goussiou, A.; Grannis, P. D.; Greenlee, H.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregores, E. M.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J. F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guo, F.; Guo, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haas, A.; Hadley, N. J.; Haefner, P.; Hagopian, S.; Haley, J.; Hall, I.; Hall, R. E.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harrington, R.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hauser, R.; Hays, J.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegeman, J. G.; Heinmiller, J. M.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoeth, H.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hong, S. J.; Hossain, S.; Houben, P.; Hu, Y.; Hubacek, Z.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; Jain, S.; Jakobs, K.; Jarvis, C.; Jesik, R.; Johns, Kenneth A; Johnson, C.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Juste, A.; Kajfasz, E.; Kalinin, A. M.; Kalk, J. M.; Kappler, S.; Karmanov, D.; Kasper, P. A.; Katsanos, I.; Kau, D.; Kaushik, V.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. M.; Khatidze, D.; Kim, T. J.; Kirby, M. H.; Kirsch, M.; Klima, B.; Kohli, J. M.; Konrath, J. P.; Korablev, V. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Krop, D.; Kuhl, T.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kurča, T.; Kvita, J.; Lacroix, F.; Lam, D.; Lammers, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, W. M.; Leflat, A.; Lellouch, J.; Leveque, J.; Li, J.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lietti, S. M.; Lima, J. G R; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Love, P.; Lubatti, H. J.; Luna, R.; Lyon, A. L.; MacIel, A. K A; Mackin, D.; Madaras, R. J.; Mättig, P.; Magass, C.; Magerkurth, A.; Mal, P. K.; Malbouisson, H. B.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mao, H. S.; Maravin, Y.; Martin, B.; McCarthy, R.; Melnitchouk, A.; Mendoza, L.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Millet, T.; Mitrevski, J.; Molina, J.; Mommsen, R. K.; Mondal, N. K.; Moore, R. W.; Moulik, T.; Muanza, G. S.; Mulders, M.; Mulhearn, M.; Mundal, O.; Mundim, L.; Nagy, E.; Naimuddin, M.; Narain, M.; Naumann, N. A.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Nilsen, H.; Nogima, H.; Novaes, S. F.; Nunnemann, T.; O'Dell, V.; O'Neil, D. C.; Obrant, G.; Ochando, C.; Onoprienko, D.; Oshima, N.; Osman, N.; Osta, J.; Otec, R.; Otero Y Garzón, G. J.; Owen, M.; Padley, P.; Pangilinan, M.; Parashar, N.; Park, S. J.; Park, S. K.; Parsons, J.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Pawloski, G.; Penning, B.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, K.; Peters, Y.; Pétroff, P.; Petteni, M.; Piegaia, R.; Piper, J.; Pleier, M. A.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L M; Podstavkov, V. M.; Pogorelov, Y.; Pol, M. E.; Polozov, P.; Pope, B. G.; Popov, A. V.; Potter, C.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B.; Rakitine, A.; Rangel, M. S.; Ranjan, K.; Ratoff, P. N.; Renkel, P.; Reucroft, S.; Rich, P.; Rieger, J.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robinson, S.; Rodrigues, R. F.; Rominsky, M.; Royon, C.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Safronov, G.; Sajot, G.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Sanders, M. P.; Santoro, A.; Savage, G.; Sawyer, L.; Scanlon, T.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scheglov, Y.; Schellman, H.; Schliephake, T.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwienhorst, R.; Sekaric, J.; Severini, H.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shary, V.; Shchukin, A. A.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Siccardi, V.; Simak, V.; Sirotenko, V.; Skubic, P.; Slattery, P.; Smirnov, D.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Sonnenschein, L.; Sopczak, A.; Sosebee, M.; Soustruznik, K.; Spurlock, B.; Stark, J.; Steele, J.; Stolin, V.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strang, M. A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D.; Stutte, L.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Svoisky, P.; Sznajder, A.; Tamburello, P.; Tanasijczuk, A.; Taylor, W.; Temple, J.; Tiller, B.; Tissandier, F.; Titov, M.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Toole, T.; Torchiani, I.; Trefzger, T.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuchming, B.; Tully, C.; Tuts, P. M.; Unalan, R.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Uzunyan, S.; Vachon, B.; Van Den Berg, P. J.; Van Kooten, R.; Van Leeuwen, W. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, Erich W; Vasilyev, I. A.; Vaupel, M.; Verdier, P.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Verzocchi, M.; Vetterli, M.; Villeneuve-Seguier, F.; Vint, P.; Vokac, P.; Von Toerne, E.; Voutilainen, M.; Wagner, R.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, L.; Wang, M. H L S; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Welty-Rieger, L.; Wenger, A.; Wermes, N.; Wetstein, M.; White, A.; Wicke, D.; Wilson, G. W.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wobisch, M.; Wood, D. R.; Wyatt, T. R.; Xie, Y.; Yacoob, S.; Yamada, R.; Yan, M.; Yasuda, T.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Yip, K.; Yoo, H. D.; Youn, S. W.; Yu, J.; Zatserklyaniy, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zhao, T.; Zhou, B.; Zhu, J.; Zielinski, M.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zivkovic, L.; Zutshi, V.; Zverev, E. G.

In: Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology, Vol. 78, No. 1, 012005, 14.07.2008.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abazov, VM, Abbott, B, Abolins, M, Acharya, BS, Adams, M, Adams, T, Aguilo, E, Ahn, SH, Ahsan, M, Alexeev, GD, Alkhazov, G, Alton, A, Alverson, G, Alves, GA, Anastasoaie, M, Ancu, LS, Andeen, T, Anderson, S, Anzelc, MS, Aoki, M, Arnoud, Y, Arov, M, Arthaud, M, Askew, A, Åsman, B, Assis Jesus, ACS, Atramentov, O, Avila, C, Ay, C, Badaud, F, Baden, A, Bagby, L, Baldin, B, Bandurin, DV, Banerjee, P, Banerjee, S, Barberis, E, Barfuss, AF, Bargassa, P, Baringer, P, Barreto, J, Bartlett, JF, Bassler, U, Bauer, D, Beale, S, Bean, A, Begalli, M, Begel, M, Belanger-Champagne, C, Bellantoni, L, Bellavance, A, Benitez, JA, Beri, SB, Bernardi, G, Bernhard, R, Bertram, I, Besançon, M, Beuselinck, R, Bezzubov, VA, Bhat, PC, Bhatnagar, V, Biscarat, C, Blazey, G, Blekman, F, Blessing, S, Bloch, D, Bloom, K, Boehnlein, A, Boline, D, Bolton, TA, Boos, EE, Borissov, G, Bose, T, Brandt, A, Brock, R, Brooijmans, G, Bross, A, Brown, D, Buchanan, NJ, Buchholz, D, Buehler, M, Buescher, V, Bunichev, V, Burdin, S, Burke, S, Burnett, TH, Buszello, CP, Butler, JM, Calfayan, P, Calvet, S, Cammin, J, Carvalho, W, Casey, BCK, Castilla-Valdez, H, Chakrabarti, S, Chakraborty, D, Chan, K, Chan, KM, Chandra, A, Charles, F, Cheu, EC, Chevallier, F, Cho, DK, Choi, S, Choudhary, B, Christofek, L, Christoudias, T, Cihangir, S, Claes, D, Coadou, Y, Cooke, M, Cooper, WE, Corcoran, M, Couderc, F, Cousinou, MC, Crépé-Renaudin, S, Cutts, D, Ćwiok, M, Da Motta, H, Das, A, Davies, G, De, K, De Jong, SJ, De La Cruz-Burelo, E, De Oliveira Martins, C, Degenhardt, JD, Déliot, F, Demarteau, M, Demina, R, Denisov, D, Denisov, SP, Desai, S, Diehl, HT, Diesburg, M, Dominguez, A, Dong, H, Dudko, LV, Duflot, L, Dugad, SR, Duggan, D, Duperrin, A, Dyer, J, Dyshkant, A, Eads, M, Edmunds, D, Ellison, J, Elvira, VD, Enari, Y, Eno, S, Ermolov, P, Evans, H, Evdokimov, A, Evdokimov, VN, Ferapontov, AV, Ferbel, T, Fiedler, F, Filthaut, F, Fisher, W, Fisk, HE, Fortner, M, Fox, H, Fu, S, Fuess, S, Gadfort, T, Galea, CF, Gallas, E, Garcia, C, Garcia-Bellido, A, Gavrilov, V, Gay, P, Geist, W, Gelé, D, Gerber, CE, Gershtein, Y, Gillberg, D, Ginther, G, Gollub, N, Gómez, B, Goussiou, A, Grannis, PD, Greenlee, H, Greenwood, ZD, Gregores, EM, Grenier, G, Gris, P, Grivaz, JF, Grohsjean, A, Grünendahl, S, Grünewald, MW, Guo, F, Guo, J, Gutierrez, G, Gutierrez, P, Haas, A, Hadley, NJ, Haefner, P, Hagopian, S, Haley, J, Hall, I, Hall, RE, Han, L, Harder, K, Harel, A, Harrington, R, Hauptman, JM, Hauser, R, Hays, J, Hebbeker, T, Hedin, D, Hegeman, JG, Heinmiller, JM, Heinson, AP, Heintz, U, Hensel, C, Herner, K, Hesketh, G, Hildreth, MD, Hirosky, R, Hobbs, JD, Hoeneisen, B, Hoeth, H, Hohlfeld, M, Hong, SJ, Hossain, S, Houben, P, Hu, Y, Hubacek, Z, Hynek, V, Iashvili, I, Illingworth, R, Ito, AS, Jabeen, S, Jaffré, M, Jain, S, Jakobs, K, Jarvis, C, Jesik, R, Johns, KA, Johnson, C, Johnson, M, Jonckheere, A, Jonsson, P, Juste, A, Kajfasz, E, Kalinin, AM, Kalk, JM, Kappler, S, Karmanov, D, Kasper, PA, Katsanos, I, Kau, D, Kaushik, V, Kehoe, R, Kermiche, S, Khalatyan, N, Khanov, A, Kharchilava, A, Kharzheev, YM, Khatidze, D, Kim, TJ, Kirby, MH, Kirsch, M, Klima, B, Kohli, JM, Konrath, JP, Korablev, VM, Kozelov, AV, Kraus, J, Krop, D, Kuhl, T, Kumar, A, Kupco, A, Kurča, T, Kvita, J, Lacroix, F, Lam, D, Lammers, S, Landsberg, G, Lebrun, P, Lee, WM, Leflat, A, Lellouch, J, Leveque, J, Li, J, Li, L, Li, QZ, Lietti, SM, Lima, JGR, Lincoln, D, Linnemann, J, Lipaev, VV, Lipton, R, Liu, Y, Liu, Z, Lobodenko, A, Lokajicek, M, Love, P, Lubatti, HJ, Luna, R, Lyon, AL, MacIel, AKA, Mackin, D, Madaras, RJ, Mättig, P, Magass, C, Magerkurth, A, Mal, PK, Malbouisson, HB, Malik, S, Malyshev, VL, Mao, HS, Maravin, Y, Martin, B, McCarthy, R, Melnitchouk, A, Mendoza, L, Mercadante, PG, Merkin, M, Merritt, KW, Meyer, A, Meyer, J, Millet, T, Mitrevski, J, Molina, J, Mommsen, RK, Mondal, NK, Moore, RW, Moulik, T, Muanza, GS, Mulders, M, Mulhearn, M, Mundal, O, Mundim, L, Nagy, E, Naimuddin, M, Narain, M, Naumann, NA, Neal, HA, Negret, JP, Neustroev, P, Nilsen, H, Nogima, H, Novaes, SF, Nunnemann, T, O'Dell, V, O'Neil, DC, Obrant, G, Ochando, C, Onoprienko, D, Oshima, N, Osman, N, Osta, J, Otec, R, Otero Y Garzón, GJ, Owen, M, Padley, P, Pangilinan, M, Parashar, N, Park, SJ, Park, SK, Parsons, J, Partridge, R, Parua, N, Patwa, A, Pawloski, G, Penning, B, Perfilov, M, Peters, K, Peters, Y, Pétroff, P, Petteni, M, Piegaia, R, Piper, J, Pleier, MA, Podesta-Lerma, PLM, Podstavkov, VM, Pogorelov, Y, Pol, ME, Polozov, P, Pope, BG, Popov, AV, Potter, C, Prado Da Silva, WL, Prosper, HB, Protopopescu, S, Qian, J, Quadt, A, Quinn, B, Rakitine, A, Rangel, MS, Ranjan, K, Ratoff, PN, Renkel, P, Reucroft, S, Rich, P, Rieger, J, Rijssenbeek, M, Ripp-Baudot, I, Rizatdinova, F, Robinson, S, Rodrigues, RF, Rominsky, M, Royon, C, Rubinov, P, Ruchti, R, Safronov, G, Sajot, G, Sánchez-Hernández, A, Sanders, MP, Santoro, A, Savage, G, Sawyer, L, Scanlon, T, Schaile, D, Schamberger, RD, Scheglov, Y, Schellman, H, Schliephake, T, Schwanenberger, C, Schwartzman, A, Schwienhorst, R, Sekaric, J, Severini, H, Shabalina, E, Shamim, M, Shary, V, Shchukin, AA, Shivpuri, RK, Siccardi, V, Simak, V, Sirotenko, V, Skubic, P, Slattery, P, Smirnov, D, Snow, GR, Snow, J, Snyder, S, Söldner-Rembold, S, Sonnenschein, L, Sopczak, A, Sosebee, M, Soustruznik, K, Spurlock, B, Stark, J, Steele, J, Stolin, V, Stoyanova, DA, Strandberg, J, Strandberg, S, Strang, MA, Strauss, E, Strauss, M, Ströhmer, R, Strom, D, Stutte, L, Sumowidagdo, S, Svoisky, P, Sznajder, A, Tamburello, P, Tanasijczuk, A, Taylor, W, Temple, J, Tiller, B, Tissandier, F, Titov, M, Tokmenin, VV, Toole, T, Torchiani, I, Trefzger, T, Tsybychev, D, Tuchming, B, Tully, C, Tuts, PM, Unalan, R, Uvarov, L, Uvarov, S, Uzunyan, S, Vachon, B, Van Den Berg, PJ, Van Kooten, R, Van Leeuwen, WM, Varelas, N, Varnes, EW, Vasilyev, IA, Vaupel, M, Verdier, P, Vertogradov, LS, Verzocchi, M, Vetterli, M, Villeneuve-Seguier, F, Vint, P, Vokac, P, Von Toerne, E, Voutilainen, M, Wagner, R, Wahl, HD, Wang, L, Wang, MHLS, Warchol, J, Watts, G, Wayne, M, Weber, G, Weber, M, Welty-Rieger, L, Wenger, A, Wermes, N, Wetstein, M, White, A, Wicke, D, Wilson, GW, Wimpenny, SJ, Wobisch, M, Wood, DR, Wyatt, TR, Xie, Y, Yacoob, S, Yamada, R, Yan, M, Yasuda, T, Yatsunenko, YA, Yip, K, Yoo, HD, Youn, SW, Yu, J, Zatserklyaniy, A, Zeitnitz, C, Zhao, T, Zhou, B, Zhu, J, Zielinski, M, Zieminska, D, Zieminski, A, Zivkovic, L, Zutshi, V & Zverev, EG 2008, 'Evidence for production of single top quarks', Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology, vol. 78, no. 1, 012005. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.78.012005
Abazov, V. M. ; Abbott, B. ; Abolins, M. ; Acharya, B. S. ; Adams, M. ; Adams, T. ; Aguilo, E. ; Ahn, S. H. ; Ahsan, M. ; Alexeev, G. D. ; Alkhazov, G. ; Alton, A. ; Alverson, G. ; Alves, G. A. ; Anastasoaie, M. ; Ancu, L. S. ; Andeen, T. ; Anderson, S. ; Anzelc, M. S. ; Aoki, M. ; Arnoud, Y. ; Arov, M. ; Arthaud, M. ; Askew, A. ; Åsman, B. ; Assis Jesus, A. C S ; Atramentov, O. ; Avila, C. ; Ay, C. ; Badaud, F. ; Baden, A. ; Bagby, L. ; Baldin, B. ; Bandurin, D. V. ; Banerjee, P. ; Banerjee, S. ; Barberis, E. ; Barfuss, A. F. ; Bargassa, P. ; Baringer, P. ; Barreto, J. ; Bartlett, J. F. ; Bassler, U. ; Bauer, D. ; Beale, S. ; Bean, A. ; Begalli, M. ; Begel, M. ; Belanger-Champagne, C. ; Bellantoni, L. ; Bellavance, A. ; Benitez, J. A. ; Beri, S. B. ; Bernardi, G. ; Bernhard, R. ; Bertram, I. ; Besançon, M. ; Beuselinck, R. ; Bezzubov, V. A. ; Bhat, P. C. ; Bhatnagar, V. ; Biscarat, C. ; Blazey, G. ; Blekman, F. ; Blessing, S. ; Bloch, D. ; Bloom, K. ; Boehnlein, A. ; Boline, D. ; Bolton, T. A. ; Boos, E. E. ; Borissov, G. ; Bose, T. ; Brandt, A. ; Brock, R. ; Brooijmans, G. ; Bross, A. ; Brown, D. ; Buchanan, N. J. ; Buchholz, D. ; Buehler, M. ; Buescher, V. ; Bunichev, V. ; Burdin, S. ; Burke, S. ; Burnett, T. H. ; Buszello, C. P. ; Butler, J. M. ; Calfayan, P. ; Calvet, S. ; Cammin, J. ; Carvalho, W. ; Casey, B. C K ; Castilla-Valdez, H. ; Chakrabarti, S. ; Chakraborty, D. ; Chan, K. ; Chan, K. M. ; Chandra, A. ; Charles, F. ; Cheu, Elliott C ; Chevallier, F. ; Cho, D. K. ; Choi, S. ; Choudhary, B. ; Christofek, L. ; Christoudias, T. ; Cihangir, S. ; Claes, D. ; Coadou, Y. ; Cooke, M. ; Cooper, W. E. ; Corcoran, M. ; Couderc, F. ; Cousinou, M. C. ; Crépé-Renaudin, S. ; Cutts, D. ; Ćwiok, M. ; Da Motta, H. ; Das, A. ; Davies, G. ; De, K. ; De Jong, S. J. ; De La Cruz-Burelo, E. ; De Oliveira Martins, C. ; Degenhardt, J. D. ; Déliot, F. ; Demarteau, M. ; Demina, R. ; Denisov, D. ; Denisov, S. P. ; Desai, S. ; Diehl, H. T. ; Diesburg, M. ; Dominguez, A. ; Dong, H. ; Dudko, L. V. ; Duflot, L. ; Dugad, S. R. ; Duggan, D. ; Duperrin, A. ; Dyer, J. ; Dyshkant, A. ; Eads, M. ; Edmunds, D. ; Ellison, J. ; Elvira, V. D. ; Enari, Y. ; Eno, S. ; Ermolov, P. ; Evans, H. ; Evdokimov, A. ; Evdokimov, V. N. ; Ferapontov, A. V. ; Ferbel, T. ; Fiedler, F. ; Filthaut, F. ; Fisher, W. ; Fisk, H. E. ; Fortner, M. ; Fox, H. ; Fu, S. ; Fuess, S. ; Gadfort, T. ; Galea, C. F. ; Gallas, E. ; Garcia, C. ; Garcia-Bellido, A. ; Gavrilov, V. ; Gay, P. ; Geist, W. ; Gelé, D. ; Gerber, C. E. ; Gershtein, Y. ; Gillberg, D. ; Ginther, G. ; Gollub, N. ; Gómez, B. ; Goussiou, A. ; Grannis, P. D. ; Greenlee, H. ; Greenwood, Z. D. ; Gregores, E. M. ; Grenier, G. ; Gris, Ph ; Grivaz, J. F. ; Grohsjean, A. ; Grünendahl, S. ; Grünewald, M. W. ; Guo, F. ; Guo, J. ; Gutierrez, G. ; Gutierrez, P. ; Haas, A. ; Hadley, N. J. ; Haefner, P. ; Hagopian, S. ; Haley, J. ; Hall, I. ; Hall, R. E. ; Han, L. ; Harder, K. ; Harel, A. ; Harrington, R. ; Hauptman, J. M. ; Hauser, R. ; Hays, J. ; Hebbeker, T. ; Hedin, D. ; Hegeman, J. G. ; Heinmiller, J. M. ; Heinson, A. P. ; Heintz, U. ; Hensel, C. ; Herner, K. ; Hesketh, G. ; Hildreth, M. D. ; Hirosky, R. ; Hobbs, J. D. ; Hoeneisen, B. ; Hoeth, H. ; Hohlfeld, M. ; Hong, S. J. ; Hossain, S. ; Houben, P. ; Hu, Y. ; Hubacek, Z. ; Hynek, V. ; Iashvili, I. ; Illingworth, R. ; Ito, A. S. ; Jabeen, S. ; Jaffré, M. ; Jain, S. ; Jakobs, K. ; Jarvis, C. ; Jesik, R. ; Johns, Kenneth A ; Johnson, C. ; Johnson, M. ; Jonckheere, A. ; Jonsson, P. ; Juste, A. ; Kajfasz, E. ; Kalinin, A. M. ; Kalk, J. M. ; Kappler, S. ; Karmanov, D. ; Kasper, P. A. ; Katsanos, I. ; Kau, D. ; Kaushik, V. ; Kehoe, R. ; Kermiche, S. ; Khalatyan, N. ; Khanov, A. ; Kharchilava, A. ; Kharzheev, Y. M. ; Khatidze, D. ; Kim, T. J. ; Kirby, M. H. ; Kirsch, M. ; Klima, B. ; Kohli, J. M. ; Konrath, J. P. ; Korablev, V. M. ; Kozelov, A. V. ; Kraus, J. ; Krop, D. ; Kuhl, T. ; Kumar, A. ; Kupco, A. ; Kurča, T. ; Kvita, J. ; Lacroix, F. ; Lam, D. ; Lammers, S. ; Landsberg, G. ; Lebrun, P. ; Lee, W. M. ; Leflat, A. ; Lellouch, J. ; Leveque, J. ; Li, J. ; Li, L. ; Li, Q. Z. ; Lietti, S. M. ; Lima, J. G R ; Lincoln, D. ; Linnemann, J. ; Lipaev, V. V. ; Lipton, R. ; Liu, Y. ; Liu, Z. ; Lobodenko, A. ; Lokajicek, M. ; Love, P. ; Lubatti, H. J. ; Luna, R. ; Lyon, A. L. ; MacIel, A. K A ; Mackin, D. ; Madaras, R. J. ; Mättig, P. ; Magass, C. ; Magerkurth, A. ; Mal, P. K. ; Malbouisson, H. B. ; Malik, S. ; Malyshev, V. L. ; Mao, H. S. ; Maravin, Y. ; Martin, B. ; McCarthy, R. ; Melnitchouk, A. ; Mendoza, L. ; Mercadante, P. G. ; Merkin, M. ; Merritt, K. W. ; Meyer, A. ; Meyer, J. ; Millet, T. ; Mitrevski, J. ; Molina, J. ; Mommsen, R. K. ; Mondal, N. K. ; Moore, R. W. ; Moulik, T. ; Muanza, G. S. ; Mulders, M. ; Mulhearn, M. ; Mundal, O. ; Mundim, L. ; Nagy, E. ; Naimuddin, M. ; Narain, M. ; Naumann, N. A. ; Neal, H. A. ; Negret, J. P. ; Neustroev, P. ; Nilsen, H. ; Nogima, H. ; Novaes, S. F. ; Nunnemann, T. ; O'Dell, V. ; O'Neil, D. C. ; Obrant, G. ; Ochando, C. ; Onoprienko, D. ; Oshima, N. ; Osman, N. ; Osta, J. ; Otec, R. ; Otero Y Garzón, G. J. ; Owen, M. ; Padley, P. ; Pangilinan, M. ; Parashar, N. ; Park, S. J. ; Park, S. K. ; Parsons, J. ; Partridge, R. ; Parua, N. ; Patwa, A. ; Pawloski, G. ; Penning, B. ; Perfilov, M. ; Peters, K. ; Peters, Y. ; Pétroff, P. ; Petteni, M. ; Piegaia, R. ; Piper, J. ; Pleier, M. A. ; Podesta-Lerma, P. L M ; Podstavkov, V. M. ; Pogorelov, Y. ; Pol, M. E. ; Polozov, P. ; Pope, B. G. ; Popov, A. V. ; Potter, C. ; Prado Da Silva, W. L. ; Prosper, H. B. ; Protopopescu, S. ; Qian, J. ; Quadt, A. ; Quinn, B. ; Rakitine, A. ; Rangel, M. S. ; Ranjan, K. ; Ratoff, P. N. ; Renkel, P. ; Reucroft, S. ; Rich, P. ; Rieger, J. ; Rijssenbeek, M. ; Ripp-Baudot, I. ; Rizatdinova, F. ; Robinson, S. ; Rodrigues, R. F. ; Rominsky, M. ; Royon, C. ; Rubinov, P. ; Ruchti, R. ; Safronov, G. ; Sajot, G. ; Sánchez-Hernández, A. ; Sanders, M. P. ; Santoro, A. ; Savage, G. ; Sawyer, L. ; Scanlon, T. ; Schaile, D. ; Schamberger, R. D. ; Scheglov, Y. ; Schellman, H. ; Schliephake, T. ; Schwanenberger, C. ; Schwartzman, A. ; Schwienhorst, R. ; Sekaric, J. ; Severini, H. ; Shabalina, E. ; Shamim, M. ; Shary, V. ; Shchukin, A. A. ; Shivpuri, R. K. ; Siccardi, V. ; Simak, V. ; Sirotenko, V. ; Skubic, P. ; Slattery, P. ; Smirnov, D. ; Snow, G. R. ; Snow, J. ; Snyder, S. ; Söldner-Rembold, S. ; Sonnenschein, L. ; Sopczak, A. ; Sosebee, M. ; Soustruznik, K. ; Spurlock, B. ; Stark, J. ; Steele, J. ; Stolin, V. ; Stoyanova, D. A. ; Strandberg, J. ; Strandberg, S. ; Strang, M. A. ; Strauss, E. ; Strauss, M. ; Ströhmer, R. ; Strom, D. ; Stutte, L. ; Sumowidagdo, S. ; Svoisky, P. ; Sznajder, A. ; Tamburello, P. ; Tanasijczuk, A. ; Taylor, W. ; Temple, J. ; Tiller, B. ; Tissandier, F. ; Titov, M. ; Tokmenin, V. V. ; Toole, T. ; Torchiani, I. ; Trefzger, T. ; Tsybychev, D. ; Tuchming, B. ; Tully, C. ; Tuts, P. M. ; Unalan, R. ; Uvarov, L. ; Uvarov, S. ; Uzunyan, S. ; Vachon, B. ; Van Den Berg, P. J. ; Van Kooten, R. ; Van Leeuwen, W. M. ; Varelas, N. ; Varnes, Erich W ; Vasilyev, I. A. ; Vaupel, M. ; Verdier, P. ; Vertogradov, L. S. ; Verzocchi, M. ; Vetterli, M. ; Villeneuve-Seguier, F. ; Vint, P. ; Vokac, P. ; Von Toerne, E. ; Voutilainen, M. ; Wagner, R. ; Wahl, H. D. ; Wang, L. ; Wang, M. H L S ; Warchol, J. ; Watts, G. ; Wayne, M. ; Weber, G. ; Weber, M. ; Welty-Rieger, L. ; Wenger, A. ; Wermes, N. ; Wetstein, M. ; White, A. ; Wicke, D. ; Wilson, G. W. ; Wimpenny, S. J. ; Wobisch, M. ; Wood, D. R. ; Wyatt, T. R. ; Xie, Y. ; Yacoob, S. ; Yamada, R. ; Yan, M. ; Yasuda, T. ; Yatsunenko, Y. A. ; Yip, K. ; Yoo, H. D. ; Youn, S. W. ; Yu, J. ; Zatserklyaniy, A. ; Zeitnitz, C. ; Zhao, T. ; Zhou, B. ; Zhu, J. ; Zielinski, M. ; Zieminska, D. ; Zieminski, A. ; Zivkovic, L. ; Zutshi, V. ; Zverev, E. G. / Evidence for production of single top quarks. In: Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology. 2008 ; Vol. 78, No. 1.
@article{f70a36877cd4486abfd303f355f43e01,
title = "Evidence for production of single top quarks",
abstract = "We present first evidence for the production of single top quarks in the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron pp̄ collider. The standard model predicts that the electroweak interaction can produce a top quark together with an antibottom quark or light quark, without the antiparticle top-quark partner that is always produced from strong-coupling processes. Top quarks were first observed in pair production in 1995, and since then, single top-quark production has been searched for in ever larger data sets. In this analysis, we select events from a 0.9fb-1 data set that have an electron or muon and missing transverse energy from the decay of a W boson from the top-quark decay, and two, three, or four jets, with one or two of the jets identified as originating from a b hadron decay. The selected events are mostly backgrounds such as W+jets and tt̄ events, which we separate from the expected signals using three multivariate analysis techniques: boosted decision trees, Bayesian neural networks, and matrix-element calculations. A binned likelihood fit of the signal cross section plus background to the data from the combination of the results from the three analysis methods gives a cross section for single top-quark production of σ(pp̄→tb+X,tqb+X)=4.7±1.3pb. The probability to measure a cross section at this value or higher in the absence of signal is 0.014{\%}, corresponding to a 3.6 standard deviation significance. The measured cross section value is compatible at the 10{\%} level with the standard model prediction for electroweak top-quark production. We use the cross section measurement to directly determine the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark mixing matrix element that describes the Wtb coupling and find |Vtbf1L|=1.31-0.21+0.25, where f1L is a generic vector coupling. This model-independent measurement translates into 0.68<|Vtb|≤1 at the 95{\%} C.L. in the standard model.",
author = "Abazov, {V. M.} and B. Abbott and M. Abolins and Acharya, {B. S.} and M. Adams and T. Adams and E. Aguilo and Ahn, {S. H.} and M. Ahsan and Alexeev, {G. D.} and G. Alkhazov and A. Alton and G. Alverson and Alves, {G. A.} and M. Anastasoaie and Ancu, {L. S.} and T. Andeen and S. Anderson and Anzelc, {M. S.} and M. Aoki and Y. Arnoud and M. Arov and M. Arthaud and A. Askew and B. {\AA}sman and {Assis Jesus}, {A. C S} and O. Atramentov and C. Avila and C. Ay and F. Badaud and A. Baden and L. Bagby and B. Baldin and Bandurin, {D. V.} and P. Banerjee and S. Banerjee and E. Barberis and Barfuss, {A. F.} and P. Bargassa and P. Baringer and J. Barreto and Bartlett, {J. F.} and U. Bassler and D. Bauer and S. Beale and A. Bean and M. Begalli and M. Begel and C. Belanger-Champagne and L. Bellantoni and A. Bellavance and Benitez, {J. A.} and Beri, {S. B.} and G. Bernardi and R. Bernhard and I. Bertram and M. Besan{\cc}on and R. Beuselinck and Bezzubov, {V. A.} and Bhat, {P. C.} and V. Bhatnagar and C. Biscarat and G. Blazey and F. Blekman and S. Blessing and D. Bloch and K. Bloom and A. Boehnlein and D. Boline and Bolton, {T. A.} and Boos, {E. E.} and G. Borissov and T. Bose and A. Brandt and R. Brock and G. Brooijmans and A. Bross and D. Brown and Buchanan, {N. J.} and D. Buchholz and M. Buehler and V. Buescher and V. Bunichev and S. Burdin and S. Burke and Burnett, {T. H.} and Buszello, {C. P.} and Butler, {J. M.} and P. Calfayan and S. Calvet and J. Cammin and W. Carvalho and Casey, {B. C K} and H. Castilla-Valdez and S. Chakrabarti and D. Chakraborty and K. Chan and Chan, {K. M.} and A. Chandra and F. Charles and Cheu, {Elliott C} and F. Chevallier and Cho, {D. K.} and S. Choi and B. Choudhary and L. Christofek and T. Christoudias and S. Cihangir and D. Claes and Y. Coadou and M. Cooke and Cooper, {W. E.} and M. Corcoran and F. Couderc and Cousinou, {M. C.} and S. Cr{\'e}p{\'e}-Renaudin and D. Cutts and M. Ćwiok and {Da Motta}, H. and A. Das and G. Davies and K. De and {De Jong}, {S. J.} and {De La Cruz-Burelo}, E. and {De Oliveira Martins}, C. and Degenhardt, {J. D.} and F. D{\'e}liot and M. Demarteau and R. Demina and D. Denisov and Denisov, {S. P.} and S. Desai and Diehl, {H. T.} and M. Diesburg and A. Dominguez and H. Dong and Dudko, {L. V.} and L. Duflot and Dugad, {S. R.} and D. Duggan and A. Duperrin and J. Dyer and A. Dyshkant and M. Eads and D. Edmunds and J. Ellison and Elvira, {V. D.} and Y. Enari and S. Eno and P. Ermolov and H. Evans and A. Evdokimov and Evdokimov, {V. N.} and Ferapontov, {A. V.} and T. Ferbel and F. Fiedler and F. Filthaut and W. Fisher and Fisk, {H. E.} and M. Fortner and H. Fox and S. Fu and S. Fuess and T. Gadfort and Galea, {C. F.} and E. Gallas and C. Garcia and A. Garcia-Bellido and V. Gavrilov and P. Gay and W. Geist and D. Gel{\'e} and Gerber, {C. E.} and Y. Gershtein and D. Gillberg and G. Ginther and N. Gollub and B. G{\'o}mez and A. Goussiou and Grannis, {P. D.} and H. Greenlee and Greenwood, {Z. D.} and Gregores, {E. M.} and G. Grenier and Ph Gris and Grivaz, {J. F.} and A. Grohsjean and S. Gr{\"u}nendahl and Gr{\"u}newald, {M. W.} and F. Guo and J. Guo and G. Gutierrez and P. Gutierrez and A. Haas and Hadley, {N. J.} and P. Haefner and S. Hagopian and J. Haley and I. Hall and Hall, {R. E.} and L. Han and K. Harder and A. Harel and R. Harrington and Hauptman, {J. M.} and R. Hauser and J. Hays and T. Hebbeker and D. Hedin and Hegeman, {J. G.} and Heinmiller, {J. M.} and Heinson, {A. P.} and U. Heintz and C. Hensel and K. Herner and G. Hesketh and Hildreth, {M. D.} and R. Hirosky and Hobbs, {J. D.} and B. Hoeneisen and H. Hoeth and M. Hohlfeld and Hong, {S. J.} and S. Hossain and P. Houben and Y. Hu and Z. Hubacek and V. Hynek and I. Iashvili and R. Illingworth and Ito, {A. S.} and S. Jabeen and M. Jaffr{\'e} and S. Jain and K. Jakobs and C. Jarvis and R. Jesik and Johns, {Kenneth A} and C. Johnson and M. Johnson and A. Jonckheere and P. Jonsson and A. Juste and E. Kajfasz and Kalinin, {A. M.} and Kalk, {J. M.} and S. Kappler and D. Karmanov and Kasper, {P. A.} and I. Katsanos and D. Kau and V. Kaushik and R. Kehoe and S. Kermiche and N. Khalatyan and A. Khanov and A. Kharchilava and Kharzheev, {Y. M.} and D. Khatidze and Kim, {T. J.} and Kirby, {M. H.} and M. Kirsch and B. Klima and Kohli, {J. M.} and Konrath, {J. P.} and Korablev, {V. M.} and Kozelov, {A. V.} and J. Kraus and D. Krop and T. Kuhl and A. Kumar and A. Kupco and T. Kurča and J. Kvita and F. Lacroix and D. Lam and S. Lammers and G. Landsberg and P. Lebrun and Lee, {W. M.} and A. Leflat and J. Lellouch and J. Leveque and J. Li and L. Li and Li, {Q. Z.} and Lietti, {S. M.} and Lima, {J. G R} and D. Lincoln and J. Linnemann and Lipaev, {V. V.} and R. Lipton and Y. Liu and Z. Liu and A. Lobodenko and M. Lokajicek and P. Love and Lubatti, {H. J.} and R. Luna and Lyon, {A. L.} and MacIel, {A. K A} and D. Mackin and Madaras, {R. J.} and P. M{\"a}ttig and C. Magass and A. Magerkurth and Mal, {P. K.} and Malbouisson, {H. B.} and S. Malik and Malyshev, {V. L.} and Mao, {H. S.} and Y. Maravin and B. Martin and R. McCarthy and A. Melnitchouk and L. Mendoza and Mercadante, {P. G.} and M. Merkin and Merritt, {K. W.} and A. Meyer and J. Meyer and T. Millet and J. Mitrevski and J. Molina and Mommsen, {R. K.} and Mondal, {N. K.} and Moore, {R. W.} and T. Moulik and Muanza, {G. S.} and M. Mulders and M. Mulhearn and O. Mundal and L. Mundim and E. Nagy and M. Naimuddin and M. Narain and Naumann, {N. A.} and Neal, {H. A.} and Negret, {J. P.} and P. Neustroev and H. Nilsen and H. Nogima and Novaes, {S. F.} and T. Nunnemann and V. O'Dell and O'Neil, {D. C.} and G. Obrant and C. Ochando and D. Onoprienko and N. Oshima and N. Osman and J. Osta and R. Otec and {Otero Y Garz{\'o}n}, {G. J.} and M. Owen and P. Padley and M. Pangilinan and N. Parashar and Park, {S. J.} and Park, {S. K.} and J. Parsons and R. Partridge and N. Parua and A. Patwa and G. Pawloski and B. Penning and M. Perfilov and K. Peters and Y. Peters and P. P{\'e}troff and M. Petteni and R. Piegaia and J. Piper and Pleier, {M. A.} and Podesta-Lerma, {P. L M} and Podstavkov, {V. M.} and Y. Pogorelov and Pol, {M. E.} and P. Polozov and Pope, {B. G.} and Popov, {A. V.} and C. Potter and {Prado Da Silva}, {W. L.} and Prosper, {H. B.} and S. Protopopescu and J. Qian and A. Quadt and B. Quinn and A. Rakitine and Rangel, {M. S.} and K. Ranjan and Ratoff, {P. N.} and P. Renkel and S. Reucroft and P. Rich and J. Rieger and M. Rijssenbeek and I. Ripp-Baudot and F. Rizatdinova and S. Robinson and Rodrigues, {R. F.} and M. Rominsky and C. Royon and P. Rubinov and R. Ruchti and G. Safronov and G. Sajot and A. S{\'a}nchez-Hern{\'a}ndez and Sanders, {M. P.} and A. Santoro and G. Savage and L. Sawyer and T. Scanlon and D. Schaile and Schamberger, {R. D.} and Y. Scheglov and H. Schellman and T. Schliephake and C. Schwanenberger and A. Schwartzman and R. Schwienhorst and J. Sekaric and H. Severini and E. Shabalina and M. Shamim and V. Shary and Shchukin, {A. A.} and Shivpuri, {R. K.} and V. Siccardi and V. Simak and V. Sirotenko and P. Skubic and P. Slattery and D. Smirnov and Snow, {G. R.} and J. Snow and S. Snyder and S. S{\"o}ldner-Rembold and L. Sonnenschein and A. Sopczak and M. Sosebee and K. Soustruznik and B. Spurlock and J. Stark and J. Steele and V. Stolin and Stoyanova, {D. A.} and J. Strandberg and S. Strandberg and Strang, {M. A.} and E. Strauss and M. Strauss and R. Str{\"o}hmer and D. Strom and L. Stutte and S. Sumowidagdo and P. Svoisky and A. Sznajder and P. Tamburello and A. Tanasijczuk and W. Taylor and J. Temple and B. Tiller and F. Tissandier and M. Titov and Tokmenin, {V. V.} and T. Toole and I. Torchiani and T. Trefzger and D. Tsybychev and B. Tuchming and C. Tully and Tuts, {P. M.} and R. Unalan and L. Uvarov and S. Uvarov and S. Uzunyan and B. Vachon and {Van Den Berg}, {P. J.} and {Van Kooten}, R. and {Van Leeuwen}, {W. M.} and N. Varelas and Varnes, {Erich W} and Vasilyev, {I. A.} and M. Vaupel and P. Verdier and Vertogradov, {L. S.} and M. Verzocchi and M. Vetterli and F. Villeneuve-Seguier and P. Vint and P. Vokac and {Von Toerne}, E. and M. Voutilainen and R. Wagner and Wahl, {H. D.} and L. Wang and Wang, {M. H L S} and J. Warchol and G. Watts and M. Wayne and G. Weber and M. Weber and L. Welty-Rieger and A. Wenger and N. Wermes and M. Wetstein and A. White and D. Wicke and Wilson, {G. W.} and Wimpenny, {S. J.} and M. Wobisch and Wood, {D. R.} and Wyatt, {T. R.} and Y. Xie and S. Yacoob and R. Yamada and M. Yan and T. Yasuda and Yatsunenko, {Y. A.} and K. Yip and Yoo, {H. D.} and Youn, {S. W.} and J. Yu and A. Zatserklyaniy and C. Zeitnitz and T. Zhao and B. Zhou and J. Zhu and M. Zielinski and D. Zieminska and A. Zieminski and L. Zivkovic and V. Zutshi and Zverev, {E. G.}",
year = "2008",
month = "7",
day = "14",
doi = "10.1103/PhysRevD.78.012005",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "78",
journal = "Physical review D: Particles and fields",
issn = "0556-2821",
publisher = "American Institute of Physics",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Evidence for production of single top quarks

AU - Abazov, V. M.

AU - Abbott, B.

AU - Abolins, M.

AU - Acharya, B. S.

AU - Adams, M.

AU - Adams, T.

AU - Aguilo, E.

AU - Ahn, S. H.

AU - Ahsan, M.

AU - Alexeev, G. D.

AU - Alkhazov, G.

AU - Alton, A.

AU - Alverson, G.

AU - Alves, G. A.

AU - Anastasoaie, M.

AU - Ancu, L. S.

AU - Andeen, T.

AU - Anderson, S.

AU - Anzelc, M. S.

AU - Aoki, M.

AU - Arnoud, Y.

AU - Arov, M.

AU - Arthaud, M.

AU - Askew, A.

AU - Åsman, B.

AU - Assis Jesus, A. C S

AU - Atramentov, O.

AU - Avila, C.

AU - Ay, C.

AU - Badaud, F.

AU - Baden, A.

AU - Bagby, L.

AU - Baldin, B.

AU - Bandurin, D. V.

AU - Banerjee, P.

AU - Banerjee, S.

AU - Barberis, E.

AU - Barfuss, A. F.

AU - Bargassa, P.

AU - Baringer, P.

AU - Barreto, J.

AU - Bartlett, J. F.

AU - Bassler, U.

AU - Bauer, D.

AU - Beale, S.

AU - Bean, A.

AU - Begalli, M.

AU - Begel, M.

AU - Belanger-Champagne, C.

AU - Bellantoni, L.

AU - Bellavance, A.

AU - Benitez, J. A.

AU - Beri, S. B.

AU - Bernardi, G.

AU - Bernhard, R.

AU - Bertram, I.

AU - Besançon, M.

AU - Beuselinck, R.

AU - Bezzubov, V. A.

AU - Bhat, P. C.

AU - Bhatnagar, V.

AU - Biscarat, C.

AU - Blazey, G.

AU - Blekman, F.

AU - Blessing, S.

AU - Bloch, D.

AU - Bloom, K.

AU - Boehnlein, A.

AU - Boline, D.

AU - Bolton, T. A.

AU - Boos, E. E.

AU - Borissov, G.

AU - Bose, T.

AU - Brandt, A.

AU - Brock, R.

AU - Brooijmans, G.

AU - Bross, A.

AU - Brown, D.

AU - Buchanan, N. J.

AU - Buchholz, D.

AU - Buehler, M.

AU - Buescher, V.

AU - Bunichev, V.

AU - Burdin, S.

AU - Burke, S.

AU - Burnett, T. H.

AU - Buszello, C. P.

AU - Butler, J. M.

AU - Calfayan, P.

AU - Calvet, S.

AU - Cammin, J.

AU - Carvalho, W.

AU - Casey, B. C K

AU - Castilla-Valdez, H.

AU - Chakrabarti, S.

AU - Chakraborty, D.

AU - Chan, K.

AU - Chan, K. M.

AU - Chandra, A.

AU - Charles, F.

AU - Cheu, Elliott C

AU - Chevallier, F.

AU - Cho, D. K.

AU - Choi, S.

AU - Choudhary, B.

AU - Christofek, L.

AU - Christoudias, T.

AU - Cihangir, S.

AU - Claes, D.

AU - Coadou, Y.

AU - Cooke, M.

AU - Cooper, W. E.

AU - Corcoran, M.

AU - Couderc, F.

AU - Cousinou, M. C.

AU - Crépé-Renaudin, S.

AU - Cutts, D.

AU - Ćwiok, M.

AU - Da Motta, H.

AU - Das, A.

AU - Davies, G.

AU - De, K.

AU - De Jong, S. J.

AU - De La Cruz-Burelo, E.

AU - De Oliveira Martins, C.

AU - Degenhardt, J. D.

AU - Déliot, F.

AU - Demarteau, M.

AU - Demina, R.

AU - Denisov, D.

AU - Denisov, S. P.

AU - Desai, S.

AU - Diehl, H. T.

AU - Diesburg, M.

AU - Dominguez, A.

AU - Dong, H.

AU - Dudko, L. V.

AU - Duflot, L.

AU - Dugad, S. R.

AU - Duggan, D.

AU - Duperrin, A.

AU - Dyer, J.

AU - Dyshkant, A.

AU - Eads, M.

AU - Edmunds, D.

AU - Ellison, J.

AU - Elvira, V. D.

AU - Enari, Y.

AU - Eno, S.

AU - Ermolov, P.

AU - Evans, H.

AU - Evdokimov, A.

AU - Evdokimov, V. N.

AU - Ferapontov, A. V.

AU - Ferbel, T.

AU - Fiedler, F.

AU - Filthaut, F.

AU - Fisher, W.

AU - Fisk, H. E.

AU - Fortner, M.

AU - Fox, H.

AU - Fu, S.

AU - Fuess, S.

AU - Gadfort, T.

AU - Galea, C. F.

AU - Gallas, E.

AU - Garcia, C.

AU - Garcia-Bellido, A.

AU - Gavrilov, V.

AU - Gay, P.

AU - Geist, W.

AU - Gelé, D.

AU - Gerber, C. E.

AU - Gershtein, Y.

AU - Gillberg, D.

AU - Ginther, G.

AU - Gollub, N.

AU - Gómez, B.

AU - Goussiou, A.

AU - Grannis, P. D.

AU - Greenlee, H.

AU - Greenwood, Z. D.

AU - Gregores, E. M.

AU - Grenier, G.

AU - Gris, Ph

AU - Grivaz, J. F.

AU - Grohsjean, A.

AU - Grünendahl, S.

AU - Grünewald, M. W.

AU - Guo, F.

AU - Guo, J.

AU - Gutierrez, G.

AU - Gutierrez, P.

AU - Haas, A.

AU - Hadley, N. J.

AU - Haefner, P.

AU - Hagopian, S.

AU - Haley, J.

AU - Hall, I.

AU - Hall, R. E.

AU - Han, L.

AU - Harder, K.

AU - Harel, A.

AU - Harrington, R.

AU - Hauptman, J. M.

AU - Hauser, R.

AU - Hays, J.

AU - Hebbeker, T.

AU - Hedin, D.

AU - Hegeman, J. G.

AU - Heinmiller, J. M.

AU - Heinson, A. P.

AU - Heintz, U.

AU - Hensel, C.

AU - Herner, K.

AU - Hesketh, G.

AU - Hildreth, M. D.

AU - Hirosky, R.

AU - Hobbs, J. D.

AU - Hoeneisen, B.

AU - Hoeth, H.

AU - Hohlfeld, M.

AU - Hong, S. J.

AU - Hossain, S.

AU - Houben, P.

AU - Hu, Y.

AU - Hubacek, Z.

AU - Hynek, V.

AU - Iashvili, I.

AU - Illingworth, R.

AU - Ito, A. S.

AU - Jabeen, S.

AU - Jaffré, M.

AU - Jain, S.

AU - Jakobs, K.

AU - Jarvis, C.

AU - Jesik, R.

AU - Johns, Kenneth A

AU - Johnson, C.

AU - Johnson, M.

AU - Jonckheere, A.

AU - Jonsson, P.

AU - Juste, A.

AU - Kajfasz, E.

AU - Kalinin, A. M.

AU - Kalk, J. M.

AU - Kappler, S.

AU - Karmanov, D.

AU - Kasper, P. A.

AU - Katsanos, I.

AU - Kau, D.

AU - Kaushik, V.

AU - Kehoe, R.

AU - Kermiche, S.

AU - Khalatyan, N.

AU - Khanov, A.

AU - Kharchilava, A.

AU - Kharzheev, Y. M.

AU - Khatidze, D.

AU - Kim, T. J.

AU - Kirby, M. H.

AU - Kirsch, M.

AU - Klima, B.

AU - Kohli, J. M.

AU - Konrath, J. P.

AU - Korablev, V. M.

AU - Kozelov, A. V.

AU - Kraus, J.

AU - Krop, D.

AU - Kuhl, T.

AU - Kumar, A.

AU - Kupco, A.

AU - Kurča, T.

AU - Kvita, J.

AU - Lacroix, F.

AU - Lam, D.

AU - Lammers, S.

AU - Landsberg, G.

AU - Lebrun, P.

AU - Lee, W. M.

AU - Leflat, A.

AU - Lellouch, J.

AU - Leveque, J.

AU - Li, J.

AU - Li, L.

AU - Li, Q. Z.

AU - Lietti, S. M.

AU - Lima, J. G R

AU - Lincoln, D.

AU - Linnemann, J.

AU - Lipaev, V. V.

AU - Lipton, R.

AU - Liu, Y.

AU - Liu, Z.

AU - Lobodenko, A.

AU - Lokajicek, M.

AU - Love, P.

AU - Lubatti, H. J.

AU - Luna, R.

AU - Lyon, A. L.

AU - MacIel, A. K A

AU - Mackin, D.

AU - Madaras, R. J.

AU - Mättig, P.

AU - Magass, C.

AU - Magerkurth, A.

AU - Mal, P. K.

AU - Malbouisson, H. B.

AU - Malik, S.

AU - Malyshev, V. L.

AU - Mao, H. S.

AU - Maravin, Y.

AU - Martin, B.

AU - McCarthy, R.

AU - Melnitchouk, A.

AU - Mendoza, L.

AU - Mercadante, P. G.

AU - Merkin, M.

AU - Merritt, K. W.

AU - Meyer, A.

AU - Meyer, J.

AU - Millet, T.

AU - Mitrevski, J.

AU - Molina, J.

AU - Mommsen, R. K.

AU - Mondal, N. K.

AU - Moore, R. W.

AU - Moulik, T.

AU - Muanza, G. S.

AU - Mulders, M.

AU - Mulhearn, M.

AU - Mundal, O.

AU - Mundim, L.

AU - Nagy, E.

AU - Naimuddin, M.

AU - Narain, M.

AU - Naumann, N. A.

AU - Neal, H. A.

AU - Negret, J. P.

AU - Neustroev, P.

AU - Nilsen, H.

AU - Nogima, H.

AU - Novaes, S. F.

AU - Nunnemann, T.

AU - O'Dell, V.

AU - O'Neil, D. C.

AU - Obrant, G.

AU - Ochando, C.

AU - Onoprienko, D.

AU - Oshima, N.

AU - Osman, N.

AU - Osta, J.

AU - Otec, R.

AU - Otero Y Garzón, G. J.

AU - Owen, M.

AU - Padley, P.

AU - Pangilinan, M.

AU - Parashar, N.

AU - Park, S. J.

AU - Park, S. K.

AU - Parsons, J.

AU - Partridge, R.

AU - Parua, N.

AU - Patwa, A.

AU - Pawloski, G.

AU - Penning, B.

AU - Perfilov, M.

AU - Peters, K.

AU - Peters, Y.

AU - Pétroff, P.

AU - Petteni, M.

AU - Piegaia, R.

AU - Piper, J.

AU - Pleier, M. A.

AU - Podesta-Lerma, P. L M

AU - Podstavkov, V. M.

AU - Pogorelov, Y.

AU - Pol, M. E.

AU - Polozov, P.

AU - Pope, B. G.

AU - Popov, A. V.

AU - Potter, C.

AU - Prado Da Silva, W. L.

AU - Prosper, H. B.

AU - Protopopescu, S.

AU - Qian, J.

AU - Quadt, A.

AU - Quinn, B.

AU - Rakitine, A.

AU - Rangel, M. S.

AU - Ranjan, K.

AU - Ratoff, P. N.

AU - Renkel, P.

AU - Reucroft, S.

AU - Rich, P.

AU - Rieger, J.

AU - Rijssenbeek, M.

AU - Ripp-Baudot, I.

AU - Rizatdinova, F.

AU - Robinson, S.

AU - Rodrigues, R. F.

AU - Rominsky, M.

AU - Royon, C.

AU - Rubinov, P.

AU - Ruchti, R.

AU - Safronov, G.

AU - Sajot, G.

AU - Sánchez-Hernández, A.

AU - Sanders, M. P.

AU - Santoro, A.

AU - Savage, G.

AU - Sawyer, L.

AU - Scanlon, T.

AU - Schaile, D.

AU - Schamberger, R. D.

AU - Scheglov, Y.

AU - Schellman, H.

AU - Schliephake, T.

AU - Schwanenberger, C.

AU - Schwartzman, A.

AU - Schwienhorst, R.

AU - Sekaric, J.

AU - Severini, H.

AU - Shabalina, E.

AU - Shamim, M.

AU - Shary, V.

AU - Shchukin, A. A.

AU - Shivpuri, R. K.

AU - Siccardi, V.

AU - Simak, V.

AU - Sirotenko, V.

AU - Skubic, P.

AU - Slattery, P.

AU - Smirnov, D.

AU - Snow, G. R.

AU - Snow, J.

AU - Snyder, S.

AU - Söldner-Rembold, S.

AU - Sonnenschein, L.

AU - Sopczak, A.

AU - Sosebee, M.

AU - Soustruznik, K.

AU - Spurlock, B.

AU - Stark, J.

AU - Steele, J.

AU - Stolin, V.

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PY - 2008/7/14

Y1 - 2008/7/14

N2 - We present first evidence for the production of single top quarks in the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron pp̄ collider. The standard model predicts that the electroweak interaction can produce a top quark together with an antibottom quark or light quark, without the antiparticle top-quark partner that is always produced from strong-coupling processes. Top quarks were first observed in pair production in 1995, and since then, single top-quark production has been searched for in ever larger data sets. In this analysis, we select events from a 0.9fb-1 data set that have an electron or muon and missing transverse energy from the decay of a W boson from the top-quark decay, and two, three, or four jets, with one or two of the jets identified as originating from a b hadron decay. The selected events are mostly backgrounds such as W+jets and tt̄ events, which we separate from the expected signals using three multivariate analysis techniques: boosted decision trees, Bayesian neural networks, and matrix-element calculations. A binned likelihood fit of the signal cross section plus background to the data from the combination of the results from the three analysis methods gives a cross section for single top-quark production of σ(pp̄→tb+X,tqb+X)=4.7±1.3pb. The probability to measure a cross section at this value or higher in the absence of signal is 0.014%, corresponding to a 3.6 standard deviation significance. The measured cross section value is compatible at the 10% level with the standard model prediction for electroweak top-quark production. We use the cross section measurement to directly determine the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark mixing matrix element that describes the Wtb coupling and find |Vtbf1L|=1.31-0.21+0.25, where f1L is a generic vector coupling. This model-independent measurement translates into 0.68<|Vtb|≤1 at the 95% C.L. in the standard model.

AB - We present first evidence for the production of single top quarks in the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron pp̄ collider. The standard model predicts that the electroweak interaction can produce a top quark together with an antibottom quark or light quark, without the antiparticle top-quark partner that is always produced from strong-coupling processes. Top quarks were first observed in pair production in 1995, and since then, single top-quark production has been searched for in ever larger data sets. In this analysis, we select events from a 0.9fb-1 data set that have an electron or muon and missing transverse energy from the decay of a W boson from the top-quark decay, and two, three, or four jets, with one or two of the jets identified as originating from a b hadron decay. The selected events are mostly backgrounds such as W+jets and tt̄ events, which we separate from the expected signals using three multivariate analysis techniques: boosted decision trees, Bayesian neural networks, and matrix-element calculations. A binned likelihood fit of the signal cross section plus background to the data from the combination of the results from the three analysis methods gives a cross section for single top-quark production of σ(pp̄→tb+X,tqb+X)=4.7±1.3pb. The probability to measure a cross section at this value or higher in the absence of signal is 0.014%, corresponding to a 3.6 standard deviation significance. The measured cross section value is compatible at the 10% level with the standard model prediction for electroweak top-quark production. We use the cross section measurement to directly determine the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark mixing matrix element that describes the Wtb coupling and find |Vtbf1L|=1.31-0.21+0.25, where f1L is a generic vector coupling. This model-independent measurement translates into 0.68<|Vtb|≤1 at the 95% C.L. in the standard model.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=47649097826&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=47649097826&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1103/PhysRevD.78.012005

DO - 10.1103/PhysRevD.78.012005

M3 - Article

VL - 78

JO - Physical review D: Particles and fields

JF - Physical review D: Particles and fields

SN - 0556-2821

IS - 1

M1 - 012005

ER -