Evolution of adaptation and mate choice: Parental relatedness affects expression of phenotypic variance in a natural population

Kevin P. Oh, Alexander Badyaev

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Mating between relatives generally results in reduced offspring viability or quality, suggesting that selection should favor behaviors that minimize inbreeding. However, in natural populations where searching is costly or variation among potential mates is limited, inbreeding is often common and may have important consequences for both offspring fitness and phenotypic variation. In particular, offspring morphological variation often increases with greater parental relatedness, yet the source of this variation, and thus its evolutionary significance, are poorly understood. One proposed explanation is that inbreeding influences a developing organism's sensitivity to its environment and therefore the increased phenotypic variation observed in inbred progeny is due to greater inputs from environmental and maternal sources. Alternatively, changes in phenotypic variation with inbreeding may be due to additive genetic effects alone when heterozygotes are phenotypically intermediate to homozygotes, or effects of inbreeding depression on condition, which can itself affect sensitivity to environmental variation. Here we examine the effect of parental relatedness (as inferred from neutral genetic markers) on heritable and nonheritable components of developmental variation in a wild bird population in which mate choice is often constrained, thereby leading to inbreeding. We found greater morphological variation and distinct contributions of variance components in offspring from highly related parents: inbred offspring tended to have greater environmental and lesser additive genetic variance compared to outbred progeny. The magnitude of this difference was greatest in late-maturing traits, implicating the accumulation of environmental variation as the underlying mechanism. Further, parental relatedness influenced the effect of an important maternal trait (egg size) on offspring development. These results support the hypothesis that inbreeding leads to greater sensitivity of development to environmental variation and maternal effects, suggesting that the evolutionary response to selection will depend strongly on mate choice patterns and population structure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)111-124
Number of pages14
JournalEvolutionary Biology
Volume35
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2008

Fingerprint

mate choice
inbreeding
mating behavior
relatedness
phenotypic variation
maternal effect
inbreeding depression
egg size
genetic marker
wild birds
homozygosity
genetic variance
population structure
heterozygosity
viability
fitness
bird
genetic markers
organisms
effect

Keywords

  • Animal model
  • Developmental stability
  • Environmental variance
  • Genetic complementarity
  • Heritability
  • Heterozygosity
  • Maternal effects

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Cite this

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title = "Evolution of adaptation and mate choice: Parental relatedness affects expression of phenotypic variance in a natural population",
abstract = "Mating between relatives generally results in reduced offspring viability or quality, suggesting that selection should favor behaviors that minimize inbreeding. However, in natural populations where searching is costly or variation among potential mates is limited, inbreeding is often common and may have important consequences for both offspring fitness and phenotypic variation. In particular, offspring morphological variation often increases with greater parental relatedness, yet the source of this variation, and thus its evolutionary significance, are poorly understood. One proposed explanation is that inbreeding influences a developing organism's sensitivity to its environment and therefore the increased phenotypic variation observed in inbred progeny is due to greater inputs from environmental and maternal sources. Alternatively, changes in phenotypic variation with inbreeding may be due to additive genetic effects alone when heterozygotes are phenotypically intermediate to homozygotes, or effects of inbreeding depression on condition, which can itself affect sensitivity to environmental variation. Here we examine the effect of parental relatedness (as inferred from neutral genetic markers) on heritable and nonheritable components of developmental variation in a wild bird population in which mate choice is often constrained, thereby leading to inbreeding. We found greater morphological variation and distinct contributions of variance components in offspring from highly related parents: inbred offspring tended to have greater environmental and lesser additive genetic variance compared to outbred progeny. The magnitude of this difference was greatest in late-maturing traits, implicating the accumulation of environmental variation as the underlying mechanism. Further, parental relatedness influenced the effect of an important maternal trait (egg size) on offspring development. These results support the hypothesis that inbreeding leads to greater sensitivity of development to environmental variation and maternal effects, suggesting that the evolutionary response to selection will depend strongly on mate choice patterns and population structure.",
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T2 - Parental relatedness affects expression of phenotypic variance in a natural population

AU - Oh, Kevin P.

AU - Badyaev, Alexander

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N2 - Mating between relatives generally results in reduced offspring viability or quality, suggesting that selection should favor behaviors that minimize inbreeding. However, in natural populations where searching is costly or variation among potential mates is limited, inbreeding is often common and may have important consequences for both offspring fitness and phenotypic variation. In particular, offspring morphological variation often increases with greater parental relatedness, yet the source of this variation, and thus its evolutionary significance, are poorly understood. One proposed explanation is that inbreeding influences a developing organism's sensitivity to its environment and therefore the increased phenotypic variation observed in inbred progeny is due to greater inputs from environmental and maternal sources. Alternatively, changes in phenotypic variation with inbreeding may be due to additive genetic effects alone when heterozygotes are phenotypically intermediate to homozygotes, or effects of inbreeding depression on condition, which can itself affect sensitivity to environmental variation. Here we examine the effect of parental relatedness (as inferred from neutral genetic markers) on heritable and nonheritable components of developmental variation in a wild bird population in which mate choice is often constrained, thereby leading to inbreeding. We found greater morphological variation and distinct contributions of variance components in offspring from highly related parents: inbred offspring tended to have greater environmental and lesser additive genetic variance compared to outbred progeny. The magnitude of this difference was greatest in late-maturing traits, implicating the accumulation of environmental variation as the underlying mechanism. Further, parental relatedness influenced the effect of an important maternal trait (egg size) on offspring development. These results support the hypothesis that inbreeding leads to greater sensitivity of development to environmental variation and maternal effects, suggesting that the evolutionary response to selection will depend strongly on mate choice patterns and population structure.

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