The effect of exercise training on total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women is reviewed. Several studies on the non-estrogenreplete postmenopausal population show 1–2% changes in regional BMD with one year of weight-bearing exercises. Studies of exercise training in the estrogenreplete postmenopausal population suggest large BMD changes. The long-term effect of exercise on the rate of loss in BMD after menopause and its effects on osteoporotic fractures is a critical area for future investigations.
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