Exoplanet imaging with a phase-induced amplitude apodization coronagraph. III. Diffraction effects and coronagraph design

Eugene A. Pluzhnik, Olivier Guyon, Stephen T. Ridgway, Frantz Martinache, Robert A. Woodruff, Celia Blain, Raphael Galicher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

42 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Properly apodized pupils can deliver point-spread functions (PSFs) free of Airy rings and are suitable for high dynamical range imaging of extrasolar terrestrial planets (ETPs). To reach this goal, classical pupil apodization (CPA) unfortunately requires most of the light gathered by the telescope to be absorbed, resulting in poor throughput and low angular resolution. Phase-induced amplitude apodization (PIAA) of the telescope pupil combines the advantages of classical pupil apodization (particularly low sensitivity to low-order aberrations) with full throughput, no loss of angular resolution and little chromaticity, which makes it, theoretically, an extremely attractive coronagraph for direct imaging of ETPs. The two most challenging aspects of this technique are (1) the difficulty of polishing the required optics shapes and (2) diffraction propagation effects, which, because of their chromaticity, can decrease the spectral bandwidth of the coronagraph. We show that a properly designed hybrid system combining classical apodization with the PIAA technique can solve both problems simultaneously. For such a system, the optics shapes can be well within today's optics manufacturing capabilities, and the 10 -10 PSF contrast at ≈ 1.5Λ/D required for efficient imaging of ETPs can be maintained over the whole visible spectrum. This updated design of the PIAA coronagraph maintains the high performance of the earlier design, since only a small part of the light is lost in the classical apodizer(s).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1246-1257
Number of pages12
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume644
Issue number2 II
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 10 2006
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

apodization
coronagraphs
extrasolar planets
diffraction
planet
pupils
terrestrial planets
visible spectrum
optics
point spread functions
angular resolution
diffraction propagation
manufacturing
telescopes
polishing
effect
aberration
bandwidth
sensitivity
rings

Keywords

  • High angular resolution
  • Instrumentation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics

Cite this

Pluzhnik, E. A., Guyon, O., Ridgway, S. T., Martinache, F., Woodruff, R. A., Blain, C., & Galicher, R. (2006). Exoplanet imaging with a phase-induced amplitude apodization coronagraph. III. Diffraction effects and coronagraph design. Astrophysical Journal, 644(2 II), 1246-1257. https://doi.org/10.1086/503829

Exoplanet imaging with a phase-induced amplitude apodization coronagraph. III. Diffraction effects and coronagraph design. / Pluzhnik, Eugene A.; Guyon, Olivier; Ridgway, Stephen T.; Martinache, Frantz; Woodruff, Robert A.; Blain, Celia; Galicher, Raphael.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 644, No. 2 II, 10.06.2006, p. 1246-1257.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Pluzhnik, EA, Guyon, O, Ridgway, ST, Martinache, F, Woodruff, RA, Blain, C & Galicher, R 2006, 'Exoplanet imaging with a phase-induced amplitude apodization coronagraph. III. Diffraction effects and coronagraph design', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 644, no. 2 II, pp. 1246-1257. https://doi.org/10.1086/503829
Pluzhnik, Eugene A. ; Guyon, Olivier ; Ridgway, Stephen T. ; Martinache, Frantz ; Woodruff, Robert A. ; Blain, Celia ; Galicher, Raphael. / Exoplanet imaging with a phase-induced amplitude apodization coronagraph. III. Diffraction effects and coronagraph design. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2006 ; Vol. 644, No. 2 II. pp. 1246-1257.
@article{7d3b13177b59452eadb4bc2a9797e29d,
title = "Exoplanet imaging with a phase-induced amplitude apodization coronagraph. III. Diffraction effects and coronagraph design",
abstract = "Properly apodized pupils can deliver point-spread functions (PSFs) free of Airy rings and are suitable for high dynamical range imaging of extrasolar terrestrial planets (ETPs). To reach this goal, classical pupil apodization (CPA) unfortunately requires most of the light gathered by the telescope to be absorbed, resulting in poor throughput and low angular resolution. Phase-induced amplitude apodization (PIAA) of the telescope pupil combines the advantages of classical pupil apodization (particularly low sensitivity to low-order aberrations) with full throughput, no loss of angular resolution and little chromaticity, which makes it, theoretically, an extremely attractive coronagraph for direct imaging of ETPs. The two most challenging aspects of this technique are (1) the difficulty of polishing the required optics shapes and (2) diffraction propagation effects, which, because of their chromaticity, can decrease the spectral bandwidth of the coronagraph. We show that a properly designed hybrid system combining classical apodization with the PIAA technique can solve both problems simultaneously. For such a system, the optics shapes can be well within today's optics manufacturing capabilities, and the 10 -10 PSF contrast at ≈ 1.5Λ/D required for efficient imaging of ETPs can be maintained over the whole visible spectrum. This updated design of the PIAA coronagraph maintains the high performance of the earlier design, since only a small part of the light is lost in the classical apodizer(s).",
keywords = "High angular resolution, Instrumentation",
author = "Pluzhnik, {Eugene A.} and Olivier Guyon and Ridgway, {Stephen T.} and Frantz Martinache and Woodruff, {Robert A.} and Celia Blain and Raphael Galicher",
year = "2006",
month = "6",
day = "10",
doi = "10.1086/503829",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "644",
pages = "1246--1257",
journal = "Astrophysical Journal",
issn = "0004-637X",
publisher = "IOP Publishing Ltd.",
number = "2 II",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Exoplanet imaging with a phase-induced amplitude apodization coronagraph. III. Diffraction effects and coronagraph design

AU - Pluzhnik, Eugene A.

AU - Guyon, Olivier

AU - Ridgway, Stephen T.

AU - Martinache, Frantz

AU - Woodruff, Robert A.

AU - Blain, Celia

AU - Galicher, Raphael

PY - 2006/6/10

Y1 - 2006/6/10

N2 - Properly apodized pupils can deliver point-spread functions (PSFs) free of Airy rings and are suitable for high dynamical range imaging of extrasolar terrestrial planets (ETPs). To reach this goal, classical pupil apodization (CPA) unfortunately requires most of the light gathered by the telescope to be absorbed, resulting in poor throughput and low angular resolution. Phase-induced amplitude apodization (PIAA) of the telescope pupil combines the advantages of classical pupil apodization (particularly low sensitivity to low-order aberrations) with full throughput, no loss of angular resolution and little chromaticity, which makes it, theoretically, an extremely attractive coronagraph for direct imaging of ETPs. The two most challenging aspects of this technique are (1) the difficulty of polishing the required optics shapes and (2) diffraction propagation effects, which, because of their chromaticity, can decrease the spectral bandwidth of the coronagraph. We show that a properly designed hybrid system combining classical apodization with the PIAA technique can solve both problems simultaneously. For such a system, the optics shapes can be well within today's optics manufacturing capabilities, and the 10 -10 PSF contrast at ≈ 1.5Λ/D required for efficient imaging of ETPs can be maintained over the whole visible spectrum. This updated design of the PIAA coronagraph maintains the high performance of the earlier design, since only a small part of the light is lost in the classical apodizer(s).

AB - Properly apodized pupils can deliver point-spread functions (PSFs) free of Airy rings and are suitable for high dynamical range imaging of extrasolar terrestrial planets (ETPs). To reach this goal, classical pupil apodization (CPA) unfortunately requires most of the light gathered by the telescope to be absorbed, resulting in poor throughput and low angular resolution. Phase-induced amplitude apodization (PIAA) of the telescope pupil combines the advantages of classical pupil apodization (particularly low sensitivity to low-order aberrations) with full throughput, no loss of angular resolution and little chromaticity, which makes it, theoretically, an extremely attractive coronagraph for direct imaging of ETPs. The two most challenging aspects of this technique are (1) the difficulty of polishing the required optics shapes and (2) diffraction propagation effects, which, because of their chromaticity, can decrease the spectral bandwidth of the coronagraph. We show that a properly designed hybrid system combining classical apodization with the PIAA technique can solve both problems simultaneously. For such a system, the optics shapes can be well within today's optics manufacturing capabilities, and the 10 -10 PSF contrast at ≈ 1.5Λ/D required for efficient imaging of ETPs can be maintained over the whole visible spectrum. This updated design of the PIAA coronagraph maintains the high performance of the earlier design, since only a small part of the light is lost in the classical apodizer(s).

KW - High angular resolution

KW - Instrumentation

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33845338483&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33845338483&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1086/503829

DO - 10.1086/503829

M3 - Article

VL - 644

SP - 1246

EP - 1257

JO - Astrophysical Journal

JF - Astrophysical Journal

SN - 0004-637X

IS - 2 II

ER -