Experimental demonstration of benchtop x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) of gold nanoparticle-loaded objects using lead- and tin-filtered polychromatic cone-beams

Bernard L. Jones, Nivedh Manohar, Francisco Reynoso, Andrew Karellas, Sang Hyun Cho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

55 Scopus citations


This report presents the first experimental demonstration, to our knowledge, of benchtop polychromatic cone-beam x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) for a simultaneous determination of the spatial distribution and amount of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) within small-animal-sized objects. The current benchtop experimental setup successfully produced XFCT images accurately showing the regions containing small amount of GNPs (on the order of 0.1 mg) within a 3 cm diameter plastic phantom. In particular, the performance of the current XFCT setup was improved remarkably (e.g., at least a factor of 3 reduction in XFCT scan time) using a tin-filtered polychromatic beam in comparison with a lead-filtered beam. The results of this study strongly suggest that the current benchtop XFCT configuration can be made practical with a few modifications such as the deployment of array detectors, while meeting realistic constraints on x-ray dose, scan time and image resolution for routine pre-clinical in vivo imaging with GNPs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)N457-N467
JournalPhysics in medicine and biology
Issue number23
StatePublished - Dec 7 2012


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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