Experimental results of ground-layer and tomographic wavefront reconstruction from multiple laser guide stars

Michael Lloyd-Hart, Christoph Baranec, N. Mark Milton, Miguel Snyder, Thomas Stalcup, J. Roger P. Angel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Scopus citations


We describe results from the first multi-laser wavefront sensing system designed to support tomographic modes of adaptive optics (AO). The system, now operating at the 6.5 m MMT telescope in Arizona, creates five beacons by Rayleigh scattering of laser beams at 532 nm integrated over a range from 20 to 29 km by dynamic refocus of the telescope optics. The return light is analyzed by a Shack-Hartmann sensor that places all five beacons on a single detector, with electronic shuttering to implement the beacon range gate. A separate high-order Shack-Hartmann sensor records simultaneous measurements of wavefronts from a natural star. From open-loop measurements, we find the average beacon wavefront gives a good estimate of ground layer aberration. We present results of full tomographic wavefront analysis, enabled by supplementing the laser data with simultaneous fast image motion measurements from three stars in the field. We describe plans for an early demonstration at the MMT of closed-loop ground layer AO, and later tomographic AO.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)7541-7551
Number of pages11
JournalOptics Express
Issue number17
StatePublished - Jan 1 2006


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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