Exploring the genotoxicity triggers in the MP UV/H2O2-chloramination treatment of bisphenol A through bioassay coupled with non-targeted analysis

Xiao Liu, Minkyu Park, Shawn C. Beitel, Israel J. Lopez-Prieto, Ning Zheng Zhu, Xiang Zhou Meng, Shane A. Snyder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known xenoestrogen, and UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process (AOP) is one of the most effective technologies to remove BPA from water. Using BPA spiked tap water, a batch-scale photochemical experiment was conducted to investigate whether BPA can pose a genotoxicity concern during the medium pressure (MP) UV/H2O2 treatment and the post-chloramination. Samples at different UV exposure and post-chloramination durations were collected and analyzed by CALUX® gene reporter assays regarding estrogen receptor α (ERα) and p53 transcriptional activity. MP UV/H2O2 process did not cause extra estrogenic effects from the degradation of BPA, whereas genotoxicity occurred when the treated water was exposed with monochloramine. Seven frequently reported nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs) were detected, but none of them were responsible for the observed genotoxicity. Employed with gas chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-QTOF-MS), four compounds possibly contributed to the genotoxicity were tentatively identified and two of them with aminooxy- or cyano- group were considered as “new” N-DBPs. This study demonstrated that by-products differ from their parent compounds in toxicity can be formed in the UV oxidation with post-disinfection process, which should become a cause for concern.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number145218
JournalScience of the Total Environment
StatePublished - May 15 2021


  • Bisphenol A
  • Chloramination
  • Disinfection byproducts
  • Genotoxicity
  • Non-targeted analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution


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