Explosive erosion during the Phoenix landing exposes subsurface water on Mars

Manish Mehta, Nilton O. Renno, John Marshall, M. Rob Grover, Anita Sengupta, Neal A. Rusche, Jasper F. Kok, Raymond E. Arvidson, Wojciech J. Markiewicz, Mark T. Lemmon, Peter Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

25 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

While steady thruster jets caused only modest surface erosion during previous spacecraft landings on the Moon and Mars, the pulsed jets from the Phoenix spacecraft led to extensive alteration of its landing site on the martian arctic, exposed a large fraction of the subsurface water ice under the lander, and led to the discovery of evidence for liquid saline water on Mars. Here we report the discovery of the 'explosive erosion' process that led to this extensive erosion. We show that the impingement of supersonic pulsed jets fluidizes porous soils and forms cyclic shock waves which propagate through the soil and produce erosion rates more than an order of magnitude larger than that of other jet-induced processes. The understanding of 'explosive erosion' allows the calculation of bulk physical properties of the soils altered by it, provides insight into a new behavior of granular flow at extreme conditions and explains the rapid alteration of the Phoenix landing site's ground morphology at the northern arctic plains of Mars.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)172-194
Number of pages23
JournalIcarus
Volume211
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2011

Fingerprint

Phoenix (AZ)
landing
mars
erosion
explosive
Mars
landing sites
water
spacecraft
spacecraft landing
soils
soil erosion
soil
erosion rate
shock wave
impingement
Moon
moon
plains
physical property

Keywords

  • Cratering
  • Ices

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics

Cite this

Mehta, M., Renno, N. O., Marshall, J., Rob Grover, M., Sengupta, A., Rusche, N. A., ... Smith, P. (2011). Explosive erosion during the Phoenix landing exposes subsurface water on Mars. Icarus, 211(1), 172-194. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2010.10.003

Explosive erosion during the Phoenix landing exposes subsurface water on Mars. / Mehta, Manish; Renno, Nilton O.; Marshall, John; Rob Grover, M.; Sengupta, Anita; Rusche, Neal A.; Kok, Jasper F.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Markiewicz, Wojciech J.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Smith, Peter.

In: Icarus, Vol. 211, No. 1, 01.2011, p. 172-194.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Mehta, M, Renno, NO, Marshall, J, Rob Grover, M, Sengupta, A, Rusche, NA, Kok, JF, Arvidson, RE, Markiewicz, WJ, Lemmon, MT & Smith, P 2011, 'Explosive erosion during the Phoenix landing exposes subsurface water on Mars', Icarus, vol. 211, no. 1, pp. 172-194. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2010.10.003
Mehta M, Renno NO, Marshall J, Rob Grover M, Sengupta A, Rusche NA et al. Explosive erosion during the Phoenix landing exposes subsurface water on Mars. Icarus. 2011 Jan;211(1):172-194. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2010.10.003
Mehta, Manish ; Renno, Nilton O. ; Marshall, John ; Rob Grover, M. ; Sengupta, Anita ; Rusche, Neal A. ; Kok, Jasper F. ; Arvidson, Raymond E. ; Markiewicz, Wojciech J. ; Lemmon, Mark T. ; Smith, Peter. / Explosive erosion during the Phoenix landing exposes subsurface water on Mars. In: Icarus. 2011 ; Vol. 211, No. 1. pp. 172-194.
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