Extraction of in situ cosmogenic 14C from olivine

Jeffrey S. Pigati, Nathaniel A. Lifton, A. J. Timothy Jull, Jay Quade

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Chemical pretreatment and extraction techniques have been developed previously to extract in situ cosmogenic radiocarbon (in situ 14C) from quartz and carbonate. These minerals can be found in most environments on Earth, but are usually absent from mafic terrains. To fill this gap, we conducted numerous experiments aimed at extracting in situ 14C from olivine ((Fe,Mg)2SiO4). We were able to extract a stable and reproducible in situ 14C component from olivine using stepped heating and a lithium metaborate (LiBO2) flux, following treatment with dilute HNO3 over a variety of experimental conditions. However, measured concentrations for samples from the Tabernacle Hill basalt flow (17.3 ± 0.3 ka4) in central Utah and the McCarty's basalt flow (3.0 ± 0.2 ka) in western New Mexico were significantly lower than expected based on exposure of olivine in our samples to cosmic rays at each site. The source of the discrepancy is not clear. We speculate that in situ 14C atoms may not have been released from Mg-rich crystal lattices (the olivine composition at both sites was ~Fo65Fa35). Alternatively, a portion of the 14C atoms released from the olivine grains may have become trapped in synthetic spinel-like minerals that were created in the olivine-flux mixture during the extraction process, or were simply retained in the mixture itself. Regardless, the magnitude of the discrepancy appears to be inversely proportional to the Fe/(Fe+Mg) ratio of the olivine separates. If we apply a simple correction factor based on the chemical composition of the separates, then corrected in situ 14C concentrations are similar to theoretical values at both sites. At this time, we do not know if this agreement is fortuitous or real. Future research should include measurement of in situ 14C concentrations in olivine from known-age basalt flows with different chemical compositions (i.e. more Fe-rich) to determine if this correction is robust for all olivine-bearing rocks.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1244-1260
Number of pages17
JournalRadiocarbon
Volume52
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 2010

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olivine
basalt
chemical composition
in situ
In Situ
mineral
lithium
spinel
cosmic ray
crystal
quartz
heating
carbonate
Basalt
rock
experiment
Minerals
Atom
Chemical Composition

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)

Cite this

Extraction of in situ cosmogenic 14C from olivine. / Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Lifton, Nathaniel A.; Timothy Jull, A. J.; Quade, Jay.

In: Radiocarbon, Vol. 52, No. 3, 08.2010, p. 1244-1260.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Pigati, JS, Lifton, NA, Timothy Jull, AJ & Quade, J 2010, 'Extraction of in situ cosmogenic 14C from olivine', Radiocarbon, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 1244-1260.
Pigati, Jeffrey S. ; Lifton, Nathaniel A. ; Timothy Jull, A. J. ; Quade, Jay. / Extraction of in situ cosmogenic 14C from olivine. In: Radiocarbon. 2010 ; Vol. 52, No. 3. pp. 1244-1260.
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abstract = "Chemical pretreatment and extraction techniques have been developed previously to extract in situ cosmogenic radiocarbon (in situ 14C) from quartz and carbonate. These minerals can be found in most environments on Earth, but are usually absent from mafic terrains. To fill this gap, we conducted numerous experiments aimed at extracting in situ 14C from olivine ((Fe,Mg)2SiO4). We were able to extract a stable and reproducible in situ 14C component from olivine using stepped heating and a lithium metaborate (LiBO2) flux, following treatment with dilute HNO3 over a variety of experimental conditions. However, measured concentrations for samples from the Tabernacle Hill basalt flow (17.3 ± 0.3 ka4) in central Utah and the McCarty's basalt flow (3.0 ± 0.2 ka) in western New Mexico were significantly lower than expected based on exposure of olivine in our samples to cosmic rays at each site. The source of the discrepancy is not clear. We speculate that in situ 14C atoms may not have been released from Mg-rich crystal lattices (the olivine composition at both sites was ~Fo65Fa35). Alternatively, a portion of the 14C atoms released from the olivine grains may have become trapped in synthetic spinel-like minerals that were created in the olivine-flux mixture during the extraction process, or were simply retained in the mixture itself. Regardless, the magnitude of the discrepancy appears to be inversely proportional to the Fe/(Fe+Mg) ratio of the olivine separates. If we apply a simple correction factor based on the chemical composition of the separates, then corrected in situ 14C concentrations are similar to theoretical values at both sites. At this time, we do not know if this agreement is fortuitous or real. Future research should include measurement of in situ 14C concentrations in olivine from known-age basalt flows with different chemical compositions (i.e. more Fe-rich) to determine if this correction is robust for all olivine-bearing rocks.",
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