Extreme Debris Disk Variability

Exploring the Diverse Outcomes of Large Asteroid Impacts during the Era of Terrestrial Planet Formation

Kate Y.L. Su, Alan P. Jackson, András Gáspár, George H. Rieke, Ruobing Dong, Johan Olofsson, G. M. Kennedy, Zoë M. Leinhardt, Renu Malhotra, Michael Hammer, Huan Y.A. Meng, W. Rujopakarn, Joseph E. Rodriguez, Joshua Pepper, D. E. Reichart, David James, Keivan G. Stassun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The most dramatic phases of terrestrial planet formation are thought to be oligarchic and chaotic growth, on timescales of up to 100-200 Myr, when violent impacts occur between large planetesimals of sizes up to protoplanets. Such events are marked by the production of large amounts of debris, as has been observed in some exceptionally bright and young debris disks (termed extreme debris disks). Here we report five years of Spitzer measurements of such systems around two young solar-type stars: ID8 and P1121. The short-term (weekly to monthly) and long-term (yearly) disk variability is consistent with the aftermaths of large impacts involving large asteroid-sized bodies. We demonstrate that an impact-produced clump of optically thick dust, under the influence of the dynamical and viewing geometry effects, can produce short-term modulation in the disk light curves. The long-term disk flux variation is related to the collisional evolution within the impact-produced fragments once released into a circumstellar orbit. The time-variable behavior observed in the P1121 system is consistent with a hypervelocity impact prior to 2012 that produced vapor condensates as the dominant impact product. Two distinct short-term modulations in the ID8 system suggest two violent impacts at different times and locations. Its long-term variation is consistent with the collisional evolution of two different populations of impact-produced debris dominated by either vapor condensates or escaping boulders. The bright, variable emission from the dust produced in large impacts from extreme debris disks provides a unique opportunity to study violent events during the era of terrestrial planet formation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number202
JournalAstronomical Journal
Volume157
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2019

Fingerprint

terrestrial planets
condensate
asteroids
debris
asteroid
planet
dust
planetesimal
timescale
geometry
protoplanets
condensates
vapors
hypervelocity impact
modulation
young
clumps
light curve
fragments
orbits

Keywords

  • circumstellar matter
  • infrared: planetary systems
  • planets and satellites: dynamical evolution and stability
  • stars: individual (2MASS J08090250-4858172, 2MASS J07354269-1450422)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Extreme Debris Disk Variability : Exploring the Diverse Outcomes of Large Asteroid Impacts during the Era of Terrestrial Planet Formation. / Su, Kate Y.L.; Jackson, Alan P.; Gáspár, András; Rieke, George H.; Dong, Ruobing; Olofsson, Johan; Kennedy, G. M.; Leinhardt, Zoë M.; Malhotra, Renu; Hammer, Michael; Meng, Huan Y.A.; Rujopakarn, W.; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Pepper, Joshua; Reichart, D. E.; James, David; Stassun, Keivan G.

In: Astronomical Journal, Vol. 157, No. 5, 202, 01.05.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Su, KYL, Jackson, AP, Gáspár, A, Rieke, GH, Dong, R, Olofsson, J, Kennedy, GM, Leinhardt, ZM, Malhotra, R, Hammer, M, Meng, HYA, Rujopakarn, W, Rodriguez, JE, Pepper, J, Reichart, DE, James, D & Stassun, KG 2019, 'Extreme Debris Disk Variability: Exploring the Diverse Outcomes of Large Asteroid Impacts during the Era of Terrestrial Planet Formation', Astronomical Journal, vol. 157, no. 5, 202. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/ab1260
Su, Kate Y.L. ; Jackson, Alan P. ; Gáspár, András ; Rieke, George H. ; Dong, Ruobing ; Olofsson, Johan ; Kennedy, G. M. ; Leinhardt, Zoë M. ; Malhotra, Renu ; Hammer, Michael ; Meng, Huan Y.A. ; Rujopakarn, W. ; Rodriguez, Joseph E. ; Pepper, Joshua ; Reichart, D. E. ; James, David ; Stassun, Keivan G. / Extreme Debris Disk Variability : Exploring the Diverse Outcomes of Large Asteroid Impacts during the Era of Terrestrial Planet Formation. In: Astronomical Journal. 2019 ; Vol. 157, No. 5.
@article{d42de5c5b03c4e18bebce0985338b57d,
title = "Extreme Debris Disk Variability: Exploring the Diverse Outcomes of Large Asteroid Impacts during the Era of Terrestrial Planet Formation",
abstract = "The most dramatic phases of terrestrial planet formation are thought to be oligarchic and chaotic growth, on timescales of up to 100-200 Myr, when violent impacts occur between large planetesimals of sizes up to protoplanets. Such events are marked by the production of large amounts of debris, as has been observed in some exceptionally bright and young debris disks (termed extreme debris disks). Here we report five years of Spitzer measurements of such systems around two young solar-type stars: ID8 and P1121. The short-term (weekly to monthly) and long-term (yearly) disk variability is consistent with the aftermaths of large impacts involving large asteroid-sized bodies. We demonstrate that an impact-produced clump of optically thick dust, under the influence of the dynamical and viewing geometry effects, can produce short-term modulation in the disk light curves. The long-term disk flux variation is related to the collisional evolution within the impact-produced fragments once released into a circumstellar orbit. The time-variable behavior observed in the P1121 system is consistent with a hypervelocity impact prior to 2012 that produced vapor condensates as the dominant impact product. Two distinct short-term modulations in the ID8 system suggest two violent impacts at different times and locations. Its long-term variation is consistent with the collisional evolution of two different populations of impact-produced debris dominated by either vapor condensates or escaping boulders. The bright, variable emission from the dust produced in large impacts from extreme debris disks provides a unique opportunity to study violent events during the era of terrestrial planet formation.",
keywords = "circumstellar matter, infrared: planetary systems, planets and satellites: dynamical evolution and stability, stars: individual (2MASS J08090250-4858172, 2MASS J07354269-1450422)",
author = "Su, {Kate Y.L.} and Jackson, {Alan P.} and Andr{\'a}s G{\'a}sp{\'a}r and Rieke, {George H.} and Ruobing Dong and Johan Olofsson and Kennedy, {G. M.} and Leinhardt, {Zo{\"e} M.} and Renu Malhotra and Michael Hammer and Meng, {Huan Y.A.} and W. Rujopakarn and Rodriguez, {Joseph E.} and Joshua Pepper and Reichart, {D. E.} and David James and Stassun, {Keivan G.}",
year = "2019",
month = "5",
day = "1",
doi = "10.3847/1538-3881/ab1260",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "157",
journal = "Astronomical Journal",
issn = "0004-6256",
publisher = "IOP Publishing Ltd.",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Extreme Debris Disk Variability

T2 - Exploring the Diverse Outcomes of Large Asteroid Impacts during the Era of Terrestrial Planet Formation

AU - Su, Kate Y.L.

AU - Jackson, Alan P.

AU - Gáspár, András

AU - Rieke, George H.

AU - Dong, Ruobing

AU - Olofsson, Johan

AU - Kennedy, G. M.

AU - Leinhardt, Zoë M.

AU - Malhotra, Renu

AU - Hammer, Michael

AU - Meng, Huan Y.A.

AU - Rujopakarn, W.

AU - Rodriguez, Joseph E.

AU - Pepper, Joshua

AU - Reichart, D. E.

AU - James, David

AU - Stassun, Keivan G.

PY - 2019/5/1

Y1 - 2019/5/1

N2 - The most dramatic phases of terrestrial planet formation are thought to be oligarchic and chaotic growth, on timescales of up to 100-200 Myr, when violent impacts occur between large planetesimals of sizes up to protoplanets. Such events are marked by the production of large amounts of debris, as has been observed in some exceptionally bright and young debris disks (termed extreme debris disks). Here we report five years of Spitzer measurements of such systems around two young solar-type stars: ID8 and P1121. The short-term (weekly to monthly) and long-term (yearly) disk variability is consistent with the aftermaths of large impacts involving large asteroid-sized bodies. We demonstrate that an impact-produced clump of optically thick dust, under the influence of the dynamical and viewing geometry effects, can produce short-term modulation in the disk light curves. The long-term disk flux variation is related to the collisional evolution within the impact-produced fragments once released into a circumstellar orbit. The time-variable behavior observed in the P1121 system is consistent with a hypervelocity impact prior to 2012 that produced vapor condensates as the dominant impact product. Two distinct short-term modulations in the ID8 system suggest two violent impacts at different times and locations. Its long-term variation is consistent with the collisional evolution of two different populations of impact-produced debris dominated by either vapor condensates or escaping boulders. The bright, variable emission from the dust produced in large impacts from extreme debris disks provides a unique opportunity to study violent events during the era of terrestrial planet formation.

AB - The most dramatic phases of terrestrial planet formation are thought to be oligarchic and chaotic growth, on timescales of up to 100-200 Myr, when violent impacts occur between large planetesimals of sizes up to protoplanets. Such events are marked by the production of large amounts of debris, as has been observed in some exceptionally bright and young debris disks (termed extreme debris disks). Here we report five years of Spitzer measurements of such systems around two young solar-type stars: ID8 and P1121. The short-term (weekly to monthly) and long-term (yearly) disk variability is consistent with the aftermaths of large impacts involving large asteroid-sized bodies. We demonstrate that an impact-produced clump of optically thick dust, under the influence of the dynamical and viewing geometry effects, can produce short-term modulation in the disk light curves. The long-term disk flux variation is related to the collisional evolution within the impact-produced fragments once released into a circumstellar orbit. The time-variable behavior observed in the P1121 system is consistent with a hypervelocity impact prior to 2012 that produced vapor condensates as the dominant impact product. Two distinct short-term modulations in the ID8 system suggest two violent impacts at different times and locations. Its long-term variation is consistent with the collisional evolution of two different populations of impact-produced debris dominated by either vapor condensates or escaping boulders. The bright, variable emission from the dust produced in large impacts from extreme debris disks provides a unique opportunity to study violent events during the era of terrestrial planet formation.

KW - circumstellar matter

KW - infrared: planetary systems

KW - planets and satellites: dynamical evolution and stability

KW - stars: individual (2MASS J08090250-4858172, 2MASS J07354269-1450422)

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85067415901&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85067415901&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3847/1538-3881/ab1260

DO - 10.3847/1538-3881/ab1260

M3 - Article

VL - 157

JO - Astronomical Journal

JF - Astronomical Journal

SN - 0004-6256

IS - 5

M1 - 202

ER -