Farmers, herders, and fishers. The ecology of revenge

Aurelio J Figueredo, Ilanit Robin Tal, Prentiss McNeil, Alfonso Guillén

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Culture of honor (COH) theory [Nisbett, R. E., & Cohen, D. (1996). Culture of honor: The psychology of violence in the south. Boulder, CO: Westview Press] predicts that the importance of upholding one's reputation is cross-culturally variable: Revenge should be more prevalent in herding societies than in farming societies, and should be entirely absent in foraging societies. This study was designed to replicate the effects that they found among herding and farming societies and to either support or refute the claim regarding foraging societies. Using a 32-item questionnaire measuring the constructs of Reciprocity and Revenge, this study cross-culturally validates Nisbett and Cohen's COH theory and extends it to fishers, a special kind of forager. Researchers sampled two herding communities (Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, and Liberia, Guanacaste, Costa Rica), two farming communities (Mexico City, Mexico, and San Jose, Costa Rica), and two fishing communities (La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico, and Puntarenas, Costa Rica.) The differences between the herding and farming samples replicated previous findings in that herders were higher on the Revenge scale than farmers. The fisher samples approximate the herder samples on the Revenge scale more than the farmer samples, but were significantly different from each other. Discrepancies between the fisher samples called for the investigation of alternative theories.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)336-353
Number of pages18
JournalEvolution and Human Behavior
Volume25
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2004

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retaliation
herding
Ecology
ecology
Mexico
Agriculture
farmer
Costa Rica
farmers
farming systems
honor
society
sampling
Liberia
foraging
community
fishing community
violence
reciprocity
psychology

Keywords

  • Behavioral ecology farmers
  • Cultural evolution theory
  • Culture of honor
  • Fishers
  • Herders
  • Reciprocity
  • Revenge

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Development

Cite this

Farmers, herders, and fishers. The ecology of revenge. / Figueredo, Aurelio J; Tal, Ilanit Robin; McNeil, Prentiss; Guillén, Alfonso.

In: Evolution and Human Behavior, Vol. 25, No. 5, 09.2004, p. 336-353.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Figueredo, Aurelio J ; Tal, Ilanit Robin ; McNeil, Prentiss ; Guillén, Alfonso. / Farmers, herders, and fishers. The ecology of revenge. In: Evolution and Human Behavior. 2004 ; Vol. 25, No. 5. pp. 336-353.
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