Background and Purpose: A miniature photon radiosurgery system (PRS) has been described as an alternative to surgical resection and external-beam radiation for tumors and may now offer an alternative for ablation of renal lesions. We evaluated the feasibility of ablation by PRS in a normal parenchyma canine model. Materials and Methods: Twelve mongrel dogs were used in this survival study. In the left and right kidneys of each animal, a peripheral lesion and central-hilar lesion, respectively, were induced with PRS. The probes were placed in the renal parenchyma, and local radiation of 15 Gy at a radius of 1.3 cm was delivered over 10 minutes. Serum electrolytes were measured serially. Computed tomography scans were obtained, and the animals were sacrificed for pathologic correlation. In a separate study, the liver received three additional treatments of 10 to 20 minutes of radiation. Results: Eleven dogs survived this 6-month study and were sacrificed as scheduled. One animal expired after 2 weeks from radiation-induced fulminant hepatic failure with normal renal function. No other complications were observed. The average lesion size was 2.5 cm in diameter. Histologic analysis confirmed coagulative necrosis with sharp demarcation from the surrounding parenchyma. Conclusion: Preliminary studies demonstrate the feasibility of PRS ablation of the renal parenchyma. Further tumor model testing will be important to determine the ultimate efficacy of local photon radiation energy.
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