Field-evolved insect resistance to Bt crops: Definition, theory, and data

Bruce E Tabashnik, J. B J Van Rensburg, Yves Carriere

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

323 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins for insect pest control have been successful, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. Here we review the definition of field-evolved resistance, the relationship between resistance and field control problems, the theory underlying strategies for delaying resistance, and resistance monitoring methods. We also analyze resistance monitoring data from five continents reported in 41 studies that evaluate responses of field populations of 11 lepidopteran pests to four Bt toxins produced by Bt corn and cotton. After more than a decade since initial commercialization of Bt crops, most target pest populations remain susceptible, whereas field-evolved resistance has been documented in some populations of three noctuid moth species: Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) to in Bt corn in Puerto Rico, Busseola fusca (Fuller) to Cry1Ab in Bt corn in South Africa, and Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) to Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab in Bt cotton in the southeastern United States. Field outcomes are consistent with predictions from theory, suggesting that factors delaying resistance include recessive inheritance of resistance, abundant refuges of non-Bt host plants, and two-toxin Bt crops deployed separately from one-toxin Bt crops. The insights gained from systematic analyses of resistance monitoring data may help to enhance the durability of transgenic insecticidal crops. We recommend continued use of the long-standing definition of resistance cited here and encourage discussions about which regulatory actions, if any, should be triggered by specific data on the magnitude, distribution, and impact of field-evolved resistance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2011-2025
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Economic Entomology
Volume102
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2009

Fingerprint

Bacillus thuringiensis
toxin
insect
insects
crop
crops
maize
toxins
cotton
pest resistance
commercialization
pest control
durability
corn
monitoring
refuge
moth
host plant
pests
genetically modified organisms

Keywords

  • Bacillus thuringiensis
  • Evolution
  • Genetically engineered crops
  • Resistance
  • Transgenic crops

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Insect Science
  • Ecology

Cite this

Field-evolved insect resistance to Bt crops : Definition, theory, and data. / Tabashnik, Bruce E; Van Rensburg, J. B J; Carriere, Yves.

In: Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol. 102, No. 6, 12.2009, p. 2011-2025.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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