Economically devastating mortality events of farmed and wild shellfish due to infectious disease have been reported globally. Currently, one of the most significant disease threats to Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas culture is the ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1), in particular the emerging OsHV-1 microvariant genotypes. OsHV-1 microvariants (OsHV-1 μvars) are spreading globally, and concern is high among growers in areas unaffected by OsHV-1. No study to date has compared the relative virulence among variants. We provide the first challenge study comparing survival of naïve juvenile Pacific oysters exposed to OsHV-1 μvars from Australia (AUS μvar) and France (FRA μvar). Oysters challenged with OsHV-1 μvars had low survival (2.5% exposed to AUS μvar and 10% to FRA μvar), and high viral copy number as compared to control oysters (100% survival and no virus detected). As our study was conducted in a quarantine facility located ~320 km from the ocean, we also compared the virulence of OsHV-1 μvars using artificial seawater made from either facility tap water (3782 μmol kg-1 seawater total alkalinity) or purchased distilled water (2003 μmol kg-1). Although no differences in survival or viral copy number were detected in oysters exposed to seawater made using tap or distilled water, more OsHV-1 was de tected in tanks containing the lower-alkalinity seawater, indicating that water quality may be important for virus transmission, as it may influence the duration of viral viability outside of the host.
- Ostreid herpesvirus 1 • microvariant • oshv-1 μ vars • poms • pacific oyster • crassostrea gigas • viral disease • qpcr • alkalinity • emerging infectious diseases
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Aquatic Science