First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. II. Array and Instrumentation

The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration, Kazunori Akiyama, Antxon Alberdi, Walter Alef, Keiichi Asada, Rebecca Azulay, Anne Kathrin Baczko, David Ball, Mislav Baloković, John Barrett, Dan Bintley, Lindy Blackburn, Wilfred Boland, Katherine L. Bouman, Geoffrey C. Bower, Michael Bremer, Christiaan D. Brinkerink, Roger Brissenden, Silke Britzen, Avery E. BroderickDominique Broguiere, Thomas Bronzwaer, Do Young Byun, John E. Carlstrom, Andrew Chael, Chi Kwan Chan, Shami Chatterjee, Koushik Chatterjee, Ming Tang Chen, Yongjun Chen, Ilje Cho, Pierre Christian, John E. Conway, James M. Cordes, Geoffrey B. Crew, Yuzhu Cui, Jordy Davelaar, Mariafelicia De Laurentis, Roger Deane, Jessica Dempsey, Gregory Desvignes, Jason Dexter, Sheperd S. Doeleman, Ralph P. Eatough, Heino Falcke, Vincent L. Fish, Ed Fomalont, Raquel Fraga-Encinas, Per Friberg, Christian M. Fromm, José L. Gómez, Peter Galison, Charles F. Gammie, Roberto Garcia, Olivier Gentaz, Boris Georgiev, Ciriaco Goddi, Roman Gold, Minfeng Gu, Mark Gurwell, Kazuhiro Hada, Michael H. Hecht, Ronald Hesper, Luis C. Ho, Paul Ho, Mareki Honma, Chih Wei L. Huang, Lei Huang, David H. Hughes, Shiro Ikeda, Makoto Inoue, Sara Issaoun, David J. James, Buell T. Jannuzi, Michael Janssen, Britton Jeter, Wu Jiang, Michael D. Johnson, Svetlana Jorstad, Taehyun Jung, Mansour Karami, Ramesh Karuppusamy, Tomohisa Kawashima, Garrett K. Keating, Mark Kettenis, Jae Young Kim, Junhan Kim, Jongsoo Kim, Motoki Kino, Jun Yi Koay, Patrick M. Koch, Shoko Koyama, Michael Kramer, Carsten Kramer, Thomas P. Krichbaum, Cheng Yu Kuo, Tod R. Lauer, Sang Sung Lee, Yan Rong Li, Zhiyuan Li, Michael Lindqvist, Kuo Liu, Elisabetta Liuzzo, Wen Ping Lo, Andrei P. Lobanov, Laurent Loinard, Colin Lonsdale, Ru Sen Lu, Nicholas R. Macdonald, Jirong Mao, Sera Markoff, Daniel P. Marrone, Alan P. Marscher, Iván Marti-Vidal, Satoki Matsushita, Lynn D. Matthews, Lia Medeiros, Karl M. Menten, Yosuke Mizuno, Izumi Mizuno, James M. Moran, Kotaro Moriyama, Monika Moscibrodzka, Cornelia Müller, Hiroshi Nagai, Neil M. Nagar, Masanori Nakamura, Ramesh Narayan, Gopal Narayanan, Iniyan Natarajan, Roberto Neri, Chunchong Ni, Aristeidis Noutsos, Hiroki Okino, Héctor Olivares, Gisela N. Ortiz-León, Tomoaki Oyama, Feryal Ozel, Daniel C.M. Palumbo, Nimesh Patel, Ue Li Pen, Dominic W. Pesce, Vincent Piétu, Richard Plambeck, Aleksandar Popstefanija, Oliver Porth, Ben Prather, Jorge A. Preciado-López, Dimitrios Psaltis, Hung Yi Pu, Venkatessh Ramakrishnan, Ramprasad Rao, Mark G. Rawlings, Alexander W. Raymond, Luciano Rezzolla, Bart Ripperda, Freek Roelofs, Alan Rogers, Eduardo Ros, Mel Rose, Arash Roshanineshat, Helge Rottmann, Alan L. Roy, Chet Ruszczyk, Benjamin R. Ryan, Kazi L.J. Rygl, Salvador Sánchez, David Sánchez-Arguelles, Mahito Sasada, Tuomas Savolainen, F. Peter Schloerb, Karl Friedrich Schuster, Lijing Shao, Zhiqiang Shen, Des Small, Bong Won Sohn, Jason Soohoo, Fumie Tazaki, Paul Tiede, Remo P.J. Tilanus, Michael Titus, Kenji Toma, Pablo Torne, Tyler Trent, Sascha Trippe, Shuichiro Tsuda, Ilse Van Bemmel, Huib Jan Van Langevelde, Daniel R. Van Rossum, Jan Wagner, John Wardle, Jonathan Weintroub, Norbert Wex, Robert Wharton, Maciek Wielgus, George N. Wong, Qingwen Wu, André Young, Ken Young, Ziri Younsi, Feng Yuan, Ye Fei Yuan, J. Anton Zensus, Guangyao Zhao, Shan Shan Zhao, Ziyan Zhu, Juan Carlos Algaba, Alexander Allardi, Rodrigo Amestica, Uwe Bach, Christopher Beaudoin, Bradford A. Benson, Ryan Berthold, Jay M. Blanchard, Ray Blundell, Sandra Bustamente, Roger Cappallo, Edgar Castillo-Dominguez, Chih Cheng Chang, Shu Hao Chang, Song Chu Chang, Chung Chen Chen, Ryan Chilson, Tim C. Chuter, Rodrigo Córdova Rosado, Iain M. Coulson, Thomas M. Crawford, Joseph Crowley, John David, Mark Derome, Matthew Dexter, Sven Dornbusch, Kevin A. Dudevoir, Sergio A. Dzib, Chris Eckert, Neal R. Erickson, Wendeline B. Everett, Aaron Faber, Joseph R. Farah, Vernon Fath, Thomas W. Folkers, David C. Forbes, Robert Freund, Arturo I. Gómez-Ruiz, David M. Gale, Feng Gao, Gertie Geertsema, David A. Graham, Christopher H. Greer, Ronald Grosslein, Frédéric Gueth, Nils W. Halverson, Chih Chiang Han, Kuo Chang Han, Jinchi Hao, Yutaka Hasegawa, Jason W. Henning, Antonio Hernández-Gómez, Rubén Herrero-Illana, Stefan Heyminck, Akihiko Hirota, James Hoge, Yau De Huang, C. M.Violette Impellizzeri, Homin Jiang, Atish Kamble, Ryan Keisler, Kimihiro Kimura, Yusuke Kono, Derek Kubo, John Kuroda, Richard Lacasse, Robert A. Laing, Erik M. Leitch, Chao Te Li, Lupin C.C. Lin, Ching Tang Liu, Kuan Yu Liu, Li Ming Lu, Ralph G. Marson, Pierre L. Martin-Cocher, Kyle D. Massingill, Callie Matulonis, Martin P. McColl, Stephen R. McWhirter, Hugo Messias, Zheng Meyer-Zhao, Daniel Michalik, Alfredo Montana, William Montgomerie, Matias Mora-Klein, Dirk Muders, Andrew Nadolski, Santiago Navarro, Chi H. Nguyen, Hiroaki Nishioka, Timothy Norton, George Nystrom, Hideo Ogawa, Peter Oshiro, Stephen Padin, Harriet Parsons, Scott N. Paine, Juan Penalver, Neil M. Phillips, Michael Poirier, Nicolas Pradel, Rurik A. Primiani, Philippe A. Raffin, Alexandra S. Rahlin, George Reiland, Christopher Risacher, Ignacio Ruiz, Alejandro F. Sáez-Madain, Remi Sassella, Pim Schellart, Paul Shaw, Kevin M. Silva, Hotaka Shiokawa, David R. Smith, William Snow, Kamal Souccar, Don Sousa, T. K. Sridharan, Ranjani Srinivasan, William Stahm, Antony A. Stark, Kyle Story, Sjoerd T. Timmer, Laura Vertatschitsch, Craig Walther, Ta Shun Wei, Nathan Whitehorn, Alan R. Whitney, David P. Woody, Jan G.A. Wouterloot, Melvin Wright, Paul Yamaguchi, Chen Yu Yu, Milagros Zeballos, Lucy Ziurys

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

63 Scopus citations

Abstract

The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) array that comprises millimeter- and submillimeter-wavelength telescopes separated by distances comparable to the diameter of the Earth. At a nominal operating wavelength of ∼1.3 mm, EHT angular resolution (λ/D) is ∼25 μas, which is sufficient to resolve nearby supermassive black hole candidates on spatial and temporal scales that correspond to their event horizons. With this capability, the EHT scientific goals are to probe general relativistic effects in the strong-field regime and to study accretion and relativistic jet formation near the black hole boundary. In this Letter we describe the system design of the EHT, detail the technology and instrumentation that enable observations, and provide measures of its performance. Meeting the EHT science objectives has required several key developments that have facilitated the robust extension of the VLBI technique to EHT observing wavelengths and the production of instrumentation that can be deployed on a heterogeneous array of existing telescopes and facilities. To meet sensitivity requirements, high-bandwidth digital systems were developed that process data at rates of 64 gigabit s -1 , exceeding those of currently operating cm-wavelength VLBI arrays by more than an order of magnitude. Associated improvements include the development of phasing systems at array facilities, new receiver installation at several sites, and the deployment of hydrogen maser frequency standards to ensure coherent data capture across the array. These efforts led to the coordination and execution of the first Global EHT observations in 2017 April, and to event-horizon-scale imaging of the supermassive black hole candidate in M87.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberL2
JournalAstrophysical Journal Letters
Volume875
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 10 2019

Keywords

  • Galaxy: center
  • black hole physics
  • galaxies: individual (M87)
  • gravitational lensing: strong
  • instrumentation: interferometers
  • techniques: high angular resolution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. II. Array and Instrumentation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this

    Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration, T., Akiyama, K., Alberdi, A., Alef, W., Asada, K., Azulay, R., Baczko, A. K., Ball, D., Baloković, M., Barrett, J., Bintley, D., Blackburn, L., Boland, W., Bouman, K. L., Bower, G. C., Bremer, M., Brinkerink, C. D., Brissenden, R., Britzen, S., ... Ziurys, L. (2019). First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. II. Array and Instrumentation. Astrophysical Journal Letters, 875(1), [L2]. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/ab0c96