Fisher information analysis of digital pulse timing

Maria Ruiz-Gonzalez, Lars R Furenlid

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

In positron emission tomography (PET), it is possible to obtain useful time-of-flight (TOF) information if the gamma-ray detectors have less than 750 ps timing resolution. Including TOF information to the reconstruction algorithm increases the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We obtain timing information by analyzing digital sampled waveforms, where the sampling frequency and number of points acquired affect timing estimation. An efficient data acquisition system acquires the minimum number of samples that contains the most timing information for a desired resolution. We describe a maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation algorithm to assign a time stamp to digital pulses. The method is based on a contracting-grid search algorithm that can be implemented in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The Fisher information (FI) matrix that corresponds to the likelihood in the ML estimator quantifies the amount of timing information that can be extracted from the waveforms. Fisher information analyses on different segments of the waveform allow us to determine the amount of data that we need to acquire in order to obtain a desired timing resolution. We present how we simulate waveforms for ML estimation and FI analysis, the ML estimation algorithm and the timing resolution obtained from experimental data using a LaBr3 crystal and two photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The results show that for lengthening segments of the pulse, timing resolution approaches a limit. This information will be used to build an efficient DAQ with reduced complexity and cost that nonetheless preserves full timing performance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publication2015 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, NSS/MIC 2015
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
ISBN (Electronic)9781467398626
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 3 2016
Event2015 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, NSS/MIC 2015 - San Diego, United States
Duration: Oct 31 2015Nov 7 2015

Other

Other2015 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, NSS/MIC 2015
CountryUnited States
CitySan Diego
Period10/31/1511/7/15

Fingerprint

information analysis
Fisher information
Information analysis
Maximum likelihood estimation
time measurement
pulses
waveforms
Fisher information matrix
Positron emission tomography
Gamma Rays
Photomultipliers
Signal-To-Noise Ratio
Information Systems
Gamma rays
Positron-Emission Tomography
Maximum likelihood
Field programmable gate arrays (FPGA)
Data acquisition
Signal to noise ratio
Sampling

Keywords

  • Fisher information
  • LaBr
  • Maximum-likelihood estimation
  • PET
  • timing resolution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Instrumentation

Cite this

Ruiz-Gonzalez, M., & Furenlid, L. R. (2016). Fisher information analysis of digital pulse timing. In 2015 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, NSS/MIC 2015 [7582146] Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.. https://doi.org/10.1109/NSSMIC.2015.7582146

Fisher information analysis of digital pulse timing. / Ruiz-Gonzalez, Maria; Furenlid, Lars R.

2015 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, NSS/MIC 2015. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2016. 7582146.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Ruiz-Gonzalez, M & Furenlid, LR 2016, Fisher information analysis of digital pulse timing. in 2015 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, NSS/MIC 2015., 7582146, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2015 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, NSS/MIC 2015, San Diego, United States, 10/31/15. https://doi.org/10.1109/NSSMIC.2015.7582146
Ruiz-Gonzalez M, Furenlid LR. Fisher information analysis of digital pulse timing. In 2015 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, NSS/MIC 2015. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. 2016. 7582146 https://doi.org/10.1109/NSSMIC.2015.7582146
Ruiz-Gonzalez, Maria ; Furenlid, Lars R. / Fisher information analysis of digital pulse timing. 2015 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, NSS/MIC 2015. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2016.
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AB - In positron emission tomography (PET), it is possible to obtain useful time-of-flight (TOF) information if the gamma-ray detectors have less than 750 ps timing resolution. Including TOF information to the reconstruction algorithm increases the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We obtain timing information by analyzing digital sampled waveforms, where the sampling frequency and number of points acquired affect timing estimation. An efficient data acquisition system acquires the minimum number of samples that contains the most timing information for a desired resolution. We describe a maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation algorithm to assign a time stamp to digital pulses. The method is based on a contracting-grid search algorithm that can be implemented in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The Fisher information (FI) matrix that corresponds to the likelihood in the ML estimator quantifies the amount of timing information that can be extracted from the waveforms. Fisher information analyses on different segments of the waveform allow us to determine the amount of data that we need to acquire in order to obtain a desired timing resolution. We present how we simulate waveforms for ML estimation and FI analysis, the ML estimation algorithm and the timing resolution obtained from experimental data using a LaBr3 crystal and two photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The results show that for lengthening segments of the pulse, timing resolution approaches a limit. This information will be used to build an efficient DAQ with reduced complexity and cost that nonetheless preserves full timing performance.

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