A side-viewing, 2 mm diameter, surface magnifying chromoendoscopy (SMC)-optical coherence tomography (OCT) endoscope has been designed for simultaneous, non-destructive surface fluorescence visualization and cross-sectional imaging. We apply this endoscope to in vivo examination of mouse colon. A 30,000 element fiber bundle is combined with single mode fibers. The distal optics consist of a gradient-index lens and spacer to provide a magnification of 1 at a working distance of 1.58 mm in air, necessary to image the sample through a 0.23 mm thick outer glass envelope, and an aluminized right-angle prism fixed to the distal end of the GRIN lens assembly. The resulting 1:1 imaging system is capable of 3.9 μm lateral and 2.3 μm axial resolution in the OCT channel, and 125 lp/mm resolution across a 0.70 mm field of view in the SMC channel. The endoscope can perform high contrast crypt visualization, molecular imaging, and cross-sectional imaging of colon microstructure.