Forced expiratory volume in the first second and aldosterone as mediators of smoking effect on stroke in African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study

Wei Wang, Gui Shen, Eyal Shahar, Aurelian Bidulescu, W. Taylor Kimberly, Kevin N. Sheth, Brenda W. Campbell, Steven Horbal, Adolfo Correa, Michael E. Griswold

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Background-Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for stroke, but the mechanisms by which smoking contributes to stroke are not well understood. This study aimed to evaluate the roles of lung function (represented by forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1)) and aldosterone as potential mediators of the association of smoking with stroke. Methods and Results-The data were derived from 5010 Jackson Heart Study participants who had mean follow-up of 97.9 months. Using the Cox proportional hazards model, we estimated the hazard ratios of smoking for total stroke with and without adjustment for FEV1 and/or aldosterone at baseline after controlling for the confounders. The hazard ratio for current smoking (versus never smoking) was 2.70 (95% CI 1.71 to 4.25) for total stroke after adjustment for the confounders. Additional adjustment for FEV1 and aldosterone reduced the hazard ratio to 2.32 (95% CI 1.42 to 3.79), suggesting that 22.4% of the excess risk of current smoking for total stroke is mediated by these factors. FEV1 and aldosterone account for 13.1% and 12.1%, respectively, of the excess risk. The hazard ratio for FEV1 increased (0.61 versus 0.65) after including systemic inflammatory marker C-reactive protein, and the hazard ratios for aldosterone were comparable for the models that included all confounders and smoking status with or without different blood pressure measurements. Conclusions-Our findings suggest that the difference in stroke risk between current and never smokers may develop partially through pathways involving lung function and aldosterone and that the mediation effect through aldosterone is independent of blood pressure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere002689
JournalJournal of the American Heart Association
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2016



  • Aldosterone
  • Lung function
  • Mediation effects
  • Smoking
  • Stroke

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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