Formation of nitrogenous disinfection byproducts in MP UV-based water treatments of natural organic matters: The role of nitrate

Xiao Liu, Minkyu Park, Shawn C. Beitel, Christiane Hoppe-Jones, Xiang Zhou Meng, Shane A. Snyder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

UV-based water treatment processes have been reported to induce genotoxicity during the treatments of surface water, drinking water and artificial water with natural organic matters (NOMs), causing genotoxicity concerns for the drinking water safety. Nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs) were generally reported to be much more genotoxic than their non-nitrogenous analogues, and might be responsible for the genotoxicity in UV processes. Although nitrate-rich water was getting attention for the possibility of genotoxicity and N-DBPs during UV treatments, the impact mechanism of nitrate on the degradation of NOMs, the formation of N-DBPs and genotoxicity has not been explicated. Here simulation experiments of NOM degradation under medium-pressure (MP) UV and MP UV/H2O2 treatments were conducted to explore the effect of nitrate on the molecular characteristics of NOM, the nitrate-derived N-DBPs and the potential genotoxicity through non-targeted analysis and CALUX® reporter gene assays. The results showed that nitrate can accelerate the degradation of NOMs in the MP UV process but inhibit the degradation of NOMs in the MP UV/H2O2 process. During the degradation of NOMs, the molecular compositions varied by the effect of nitrate on oxygen atoms, molecule analogs, and saturation. A total of 105 and 374 nitrate-derived N-DBPs were identified in the MP UV and MP UV/H2O2 treatment, respectively. Most of these N-DBPs contain one nitrogen atom, and the representative features are nitro-, methoxy- (or hydroxyl-) and ester- groups on benzene. No genotoxicity was observed without nitrate spiking, whereas genotoxicity was induced after both MP UV and MP UV/H2O2 treatments when nitrate was spiked, which is worthy of attention for the drinking water safety management.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number117583
JournalWater research
Volume204
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2021

Keywords

  • Genotoxicity
  • MP UV treatment
  • Natural organic matters
  • Nitrogenous disinfection byproducts
  • Non-targeted analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Ecological Modeling
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution

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