From atoms to integrated circuit chips, blood cells, and bacteria with the atomic force microscope

S. A.C. Gould, B. Drake, C. B. Prater, A. L. Weisenhorn, S. Manne, H. G. Hansma, P. K. Hansma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

136 Scopus citations


The atomic force microscope (AFM) can now bridge the gap from imaging objects that can be seen with an optical microscope to imaging atoms: a range in magnification of 104. High magnification images of germanium show single atoms separated by 0.4 nm while low magnification images of entire cells and portions of an integrated circuit chip provide lateral and vertical information over a range of 25 um.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)369-373
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1990


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films

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