Functional trait space and the latitudinal diversity gradient

Christine Lamanna, Benjamin Blonder, Cyrille Violle, Nathan J.B. Kraft, Brody Sandel, Irena Šímová, John C. Donoghue, Jens Christian Svenning, Brian J. McGill, Brad Boyle, Vanessa Buzzard, Steven Dolins, Peter M. Jørgensen, Aaron Marcuse-Kubitza, Naia Morueta-Holme, Robert K. Peet, William H. Piel, James Regetz, Mark Schildhauer, Nick SpencerBarbara Thiers, Susan K. Wiser, Brian J. Enquist

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

162 Scopus citations

Abstract

The processes causing the latitudinal gradient in species richness remain elusive. Ecological theories for the origin of biodiversity gradients, such as competitive exclusion, neutral dynamics, and environmental filtering, make predictions for how functional diversity should vary at the alpha (within local assemblages), beta (among assemblages), and gamma (regional pool) scales. We test these predictions by quantifying hypervolumes constructed from functional traits representing major axes of plant strategy variation (specific leaf area, plant height, and seed mass) in tree assemblages spanning the temperate and tropical New World. Alpha-scale trait volume decreases with absolute latitude and is often lower than sampling expectation, consistent with environmental filtering theory. Beta-scale overlap decays with geographic distance fastest in the temperate zone, again consistent with environmental filtering theory. In contrast, gamma-scale trait space shows a hump-shaped relationship with absolute latitude, consistent with no theory. Furthermore, the overall temperate trait hypervolume was larger than the overall tropical hypervolume, indicating that the temperate zone permits a wider range of trait combinations or that niche packing is stronger in the tropical zone. Although there are limitations in the data, our analyses suggest that multiple processes have shaped trait diversity in trees, reflecting no consistent support for any one theory.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)13745-13750
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume111
Issue number38
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 23 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

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    Lamanna, C., Blonder, B., Violle, C., Kraft, N. J. B., Sandel, B., Šímová, I., Donoghue, J. C., Svenning, J. C., McGill, B. J., Boyle, B., Buzzard, V., Dolins, S., Jørgensen, P. M., Marcuse-Kubitza, A., Morueta-Holme, N., Peet, R. K., Piel, W. H., Regetz, J., Schildhauer, M., ... Enquist, B. J. (2014). Functional trait space and the latitudinal diversity gradient. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(38), 13745-13750. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1317722111