Hepatic stroma and parenchyma with its component cell types were quantitatively described in adult male and female actively‐spawning 5‐year‐old rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri, Richardson). Point‐count morphometry of glycol methacrylate sections estimated volume compartments for stroma and parenchyma. Veins composed 85% of the stroma while arteries and bile ducts occupied approximately 6–7% each. Parenchyma accounted for 95% of hepatic volume. Point‐count morphometry of transmission electron micrographs estimated volume compartments as well as numerical and surface density measurements for parenchymal components. Within the hepatic parenchymal compartment, hepatocytes occupied 85% and showed significant sex differences. Female hepatocytes were significantly more numerous but were smaller, only 60% of the volume of male hepatocytes. Since hepatocyte nuclear volume was equal in both sexes, differences were due to reduced cytoplasmic volume in females. Perisinusoidal macrophages of females occupied larger volumes of their respective parenchymal compartments, and their larger mean cytoplasmic volumes suggested activation. Biliary epithelial cells of preductules and ductules were numerous. Ratios of numerical density of hepatocytes to biliary epithelial cells were consistent with a tubular arrangement of hepatocytes. Factors possibly mediating the sexual dimorphism are discussed.
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