TY - JOUR

T1 - Fundamental limit of resolving two point sources limited by an arbitrary point spread function

AU - Kerviche, Ronan

AU - Guha, Saikat

AU - Ashok, Amit

N1 - Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2017, The Authors. All rights reserved.
Copyright:
Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

PY - 2017/1/17

Y1 - 2017/1/17

N2 - Estimating the angular separation between two incoherently radiating monochromatic point sources is a canonical toy problem to quantify spatial resolution in imaging. In recent work, Tsang et al. showed, using a Fisher Information analysis, that Rayleigh’s resolution limit is just an artifact of the conventional wisdom of intensity measurement in the image plane. They showed that the optimal sensitivity of estimating the angle is only a function of the total photons collected during the camera’s integration time but entirely independent of the angular separation itself no matter how small it is, and found the information-optimal mode basis, intensity detection in which achieves the aforesaid performance. We extend the above analysis, which was done for a Gaussian point spread function (PSF) to a hard-aperture pupil proving the information optimality of image-plane sinc-Bessel modes, and generalize the result further to an arbitrary PSF. We obtain new counterintuitive insights on energy vs. information content in spatial modes, and extend the Fisher Information analysis to exact calculations of minimum mean squared error, both for Gaussian and hard aperture pupils.

AB - Estimating the angular separation between two incoherently radiating monochromatic point sources is a canonical toy problem to quantify spatial resolution in imaging. In recent work, Tsang et al. showed, using a Fisher Information analysis, that Rayleigh’s resolution limit is just an artifact of the conventional wisdom of intensity measurement in the image plane. They showed that the optimal sensitivity of estimating the angle is only a function of the total photons collected during the camera’s integration time but entirely independent of the angular separation itself no matter how small it is, and found the information-optimal mode basis, intensity detection in which achieves the aforesaid performance. We extend the above analysis, which was done for a Gaussian point spread function (PSF) to a hard-aperture pupil proving the information optimality of image-plane sinc-Bessel modes, and generalize the result further to an arbitrary PSF. We obtain new counterintuitive insights on energy vs. information content in spatial modes, and extend the Fisher Information analysis to exact calculations of minimum mean squared error, both for Gaussian and hard aperture pupils.

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M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85093714145

JO - Nuclear Physics A

JF - Nuclear Physics A

SN - 0375-9474

ER -