Fungal community diversity and fermentation characteristics in regional varieties of traditional fermentation starters for Hong Qu glutinous rice wine

Ying Ying Huang, Zhang Cheng Liang, Xiao Zi Lin, Zhi Gang He, Xiang Yun Ren, Wei Xin Li, István Molnár

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Hong Qu glutinous rice wine (HQ wine) is a traditional alcoholic beverage produced in China by fermenting cooked rice using a fermentation starter prepared with the fungus Monascus purpureus. This starter (Hong Qu, HQ) is made empirically by open spontaneous fermentation that is hard to control and standardize, resulting in inconsistent wine quality. This study investigates representative HQ samples from a large geographic region. It explores fungal microbiome compositions, identifies characteristic differences important for the production of various HQ wine styles, and reveals the key fungi responsible for HQ wine fermentation characteristics. The source of the HQ inoculum was found to be the main factor influencing fungal community composition and diversity, followed by processing technology and geographical distribution. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) uncovered 14 genera as potential biomarkers to distinguish regional varieties of HQ. Significant differences were also found in fermentation characteristics such as liquefying power (LP), saccharifying power (SP), fermenting power (FP), total acid content (TA) and liquor-producing power (LPP). The key fungi responsible for LP (5 genera), SP (3 genera), FP (1 genera), LPP (4 genera), and TA (4 genera) were determined using redundancy correlation analysis. Finally, Spearman's correlation analysis indicated that LPP shows a strong positive correlation with FP and LP, while TA displays a strong negative correlation with FP. The results of this study may be utilized to prepare consistently high quality, next-generation HQ by better controlling fungal community structures, and to design fermentation processes for HQ wines with desirable oenological characteristics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number110146
JournalFood Research International
Volume141
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2021

Keywords

  • Correlations analysis
  • Fungal microbiome
  • Illumina high-throughput sequencing
  • LEfSe analysis
  • Rice wine starters
  • Traditional fermentation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science

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