Fused in sarcoma silences HIV gene transcription and maintains viral latency through suppressing AFF4 gene activation

Simona Krasnopolsky, Lital Marom, Rachel A. Victor, Alona Kuzmina, Jacob C Schwartz, Koh Fujinaga, Ran Taube

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cell reservoir is currently a main obstacle towards complete eradication of the virus. This infected pool is refractory to anti-viral therapy and harbors integrated proviruses that are transcriptionally repressed but replication competent. As transcription silencing is key for establishing the HIV reservoir, significant efforts have been made to understand the mechanism that regulate HIV gene transcription, and the role of the elongation machinery in promoting this step. However, while the role of the super elongation complex (SEC) in enhancing transcription activation of HIV is well established, the function of SEC in modulating viral latency is less defined and its cell partners are yet to be identified. Results: In this study we identify fused in sarcoma (FUS) as a partner of AFF4 in cells. FUS inhibits the activation of HIV transcription by AFF4 and ELL2, and silences overall HIV gene transcription. Concordantly, depletion of FUS elevates the occupancy of AFF4 and Cdk9 on the viral promoter and activates HIV gene transcription. Live cell imaging demonstrates that FUS co-localizes with AFF4 within nuclear punctuated condensates, which are disrupted upon treating cells with aliphatic alcohol. In HIV infected cells, knockout of FUS delays the gradual entry of HIV into latency, and similarly promotes viral activation in a T cell latency model that is treated with JQ1. Finally, effects of FUS on HIV gene transcription are also exhibited genome wide, where FUS mainly occupies gene promoters at transcription starting sites, while its knockdown leads to an increase in AFF4 and Cdk9 occupancy on gene promoters of FUS affected genes. Conclusions: Towards eliminating the HIV infected reservoir, understanding the mechanisms by which the virus persists in the face of therapy is important. Our observations show that FUS regulates both HIV and global gene transcription and modulates viral latency, thus can potentially serve as a target for future therapy that sets to reactivate HIV from its latent state.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number16
JournalRetrovirology
Volume16
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 25 2019

Fingerprint

Virus Latency
Sarcoma
Transcriptional Activation
HIV
Genes
Viruses
Virus Activation
Proviruses

Keywords

  • AF4/FMR2 family member 4
  • Cyclin kinase 9
  • Elongation factor for RNA polymerase II 2 - ELL2
  • Fused in sarcoma - FUS
  • Human immunodeficiency virus
  • Latency
  • Phase separation
  • Positive transcription elongation factor b
  • RNA polymerase II
  • Super elongation complex
  • Transcription

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Fused in sarcoma silences HIV gene transcription and maintains viral latency through suppressing AFF4 gene activation. / Krasnopolsky, Simona; Marom, Lital; Victor, Rachel A.; Kuzmina, Alona; Schwartz, Jacob C; Fujinaga, Koh; Taube, Ran.

In: Retrovirology, Vol. 16, No. 1, 16, 25.06.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Krasnopolsky, Simona ; Marom, Lital ; Victor, Rachel A. ; Kuzmina, Alona ; Schwartz, Jacob C ; Fujinaga, Koh ; Taube, Ran. / Fused in sarcoma silences HIV gene transcription and maintains viral latency through suppressing AFF4 gene activation. In: Retrovirology. 2019 ; Vol. 16, No. 1.
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abstract = "Background: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cell reservoir is currently a main obstacle towards complete eradication of the virus. This infected pool is refractory to anti-viral therapy and harbors integrated proviruses that are transcriptionally repressed but replication competent. As transcription silencing is key for establishing the HIV reservoir, significant efforts have been made to understand the mechanism that regulate HIV gene transcription, and the role of the elongation machinery in promoting this step. However, while the role of the super elongation complex (SEC) in enhancing transcription activation of HIV is well established, the function of SEC in modulating viral latency is less defined and its cell partners are yet to be identified. Results: In this study we identify fused in sarcoma (FUS) as a partner of AFF4 in cells. FUS inhibits the activation of HIV transcription by AFF4 and ELL2, and silences overall HIV gene transcription. Concordantly, depletion of FUS elevates the occupancy of AFF4 and Cdk9 on the viral promoter and activates HIV gene transcription. Live cell imaging demonstrates that FUS co-localizes with AFF4 within nuclear punctuated condensates, which are disrupted upon treating cells with aliphatic alcohol. In HIV infected cells, knockout of FUS delays the gradual entry of HIV into latency, and similarly promotes viral activation in a T cell latency model that is treated with JQ1. Finally, effects of FUS on HIV gene transcription are also exhibited genome wide, where FUS mainly occupies gene promoters at transcription starting sites, while its knockdown leads to an increase in AFF4 and Cdk9 occupancy on gene promoters of FUS affected genes. Conclusions: Towards eliminating the HIV infected reservoir, understanding the mechanisms by which the virus persists in the face of therapy is important. Our observations show that FUS regulates both HIV and global gene transcription and modulates viral latency, thus can potentially serve as a target for future therapy that sets to reactivate HIV from its latent state.",
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AU - Krasnopolsky, Simona

AU - Marom, Lital

AU - Victor, Rachel A.

AU - Kuzmina, Alona

AU - Schwartz, Jacob C

AU - Fujinaga, Koh

AU - Taube, Ran

PY - 2019/6/25

Y1 - 2019/6/25

N2 - Background: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cell reservoir is currently a main obstacle towards complete eradication of the virus. This infected pool is refractory to anti-viral therapy and harbors integrated proviruses that are transcriptionally repressed but replication competent. As transcription silencing is key for establishing the HIV reservoir, significant efforts have been made to understand the mechanism that regulate HIV gene transcription, and the role of the elongation machinery in promoting this step. However, while the role of the super elongation complex (SEC) in enhancing transcription activation of HIV is well established, the function of SEC in modulating viral latency is less defined and its cell partners are yet to be identified. Results: In this study we identify fused in sarcoma (FUS) as a partner of AFF4 in cells. FUS inhibits the activation of HIV transcription by AFF4 and ELL2, and silences overall HIV gene transcription. Concordantly, depletion of FUS elevates the occupancy of AFF4 and Cdk9 on the viral promoter and activates HIV gene transcription. Live cell imaging demonstrates that FUS co-localizes with AFF4 within nuclear punctuated condensates, which are disrupted upon treating cells with aliphatic alcohol. In HIV infected cells, knockout of FUS delays the gradual entry of HIV into latency, and similarly promotes viral activation in a T cell latency model that is treated with JQ1. Finally, effects of FUS on HIV gene transcription are also exhibited genome wide, where FUS mainly occupies gene promoters at transcription starting sites, while its knockdown leads to an increase in AFF4 and Cdk9 occupancy on gene promoters of FUS affected genes. Conclusions: Towards eliminating the HIV infected reservoir, understanding the mechanisms by which the virus persists in the face of therapy is important. Our observations show that FUS regulates both HIV and global gene transcription and modulates viral latency, thus can potentially serve as a target for future therapy that sets to reactivate HIV from its latent state.

AB - Background: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cell reservoir is currently a main obstacle towards complete eradication of the virus. This infected pool is refractory to anti-viral therapy and harbors integrated proviruses that are transcriptionally repressed but replication competent. As transcription silencing is key for establishing the HIV reservoir, significant efforts have been made to understand the mechanism that regulate HIV gene transcription, and the role of the elongation machinery in promoting this step. However, while the role of the super elongation complex (SEC) in enhancing transcription activation of HIV is well established, the function of SEC in modulating viral latency is less defined and its cell partners are yet to be identified. Results: In this study we identify fused in sarcoma (FUS) as a partner of AFF4 in cells. FUS inhibits the activation of HIV transcription by AFF4 and ELL2, and silences overall HIV gene transcription. Concordantly, depletion of FUS elevates the occupancy of AFF4 and Cdk9 on the viral promoter and activates HIV gene transcription. Live cell imaging demonstrates that FUS co-localizes with AFF4 within nuclear punctuated condensates, which are disrupted upon treating cells with aliphatic alcohol. In HIV infected cells, knockout of FUS delays the gradual entry of HIV into latency, and similarly promotes viral activation in a T cell latency model that is treated with JQ1. Finally, effects of FUS on HIV gene transcription are also exhibited genome wide, where FUS mainly occupies gene promoters at transcription starting sites, while its knockdown leads to an increase in AFF4 and Cdk9 occupancy on gene promoters of FUS affected genes. Conclusions: Towards eliminating the HIV infected reservoir, understanding the mechanisms by which the virus persists in the face of therapy is important. Our observations show that FUS regulates both HIV and global gene transcription and modulates viral latency, thus can potentially serve as a target for future therapy that sets to reactivate HIV from its latent state.

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KW - Human immunodeficiency virus

KW - Latency

KW - Phase separation

KW - Positive transcription elongation factor b

KW - RNA polymerase II

KW - Super elongation complex

KW - Transcription

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