Gaps and Rings in an ALMA Survey of Disks in the Taurus Star-forming Region

Feng Long, Paola Pinilla, Gregory J. Herczeg, Daniel Harsono, Giovanni Dipierro, Ilaria Pascucci, Nathan Hendler, Marco Tazzari, Enrico Ragusa, Colette Salyk, Suzan Edwards, Giuseppe Lodato, Gerrit Van De Plas, Doug Johnstone, Yao Liu, Yann Boehler, Sylvie Cabrit, Carlo F. Manara, Francois Menard, Gijs D. MuldersBrunella Nisini, William J. Fischer, Elisabetta Rigliaco, Andrea Banzatti, Henning Avenhaus, Michael Gully-Santiago

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

44 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Rings are the most frequently revealed substructure in Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) dust observations of protoplanetary disks, but their origin is still hotly debated. In this paper, we identify dust substructures in 12 disks and measure their properties to investigate how they form. This subsample of disks is selected from a high-resolution (∼0.″12) ALMA 1.33 mm survey of 32 disks in the Taurus star-forming region, which was designed to cover a wide range of brightness and to be unbiased to previously known substructures. While axisymmetric rings and gaps are common within our sample, spiral patterns and high-contrast azimuthal asymmetries are not detected. Fits of disk models to the visibilities lead to estimates of the location and shape of gaps and rings, the flux in each disk component, and the size of the disk. The dust substructures occur across a wide range of stellar mass and disk brightness. Disks with multiple rings tend to be more massive and more extended. The correlation between gap locations and widths, the intensity contrast between rings and gaps, and the separations of rings and gaps could all be explained if most gaps are opened by low-mass planets (super-Earths and Neptunes) in the condition of low disk turbulence (α = 10-4). The gap locations are not well correlated with the expected locations of CO and N2 ice lines, so condensation fronts are unlikely to be a universal mechanism to create gaps and rings, though they may play a role in some cases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number17
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume869
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 10 2018

Fingerprint

dust
stars
rings
substructures
Neptune
visibility
condensation
asymmetry
planet
turbulence
ice
brightness
Neptune (planet)
protoplanetary disks
stellar mass
planets
high resolution
estimates

Keywords

  • circumstellar matter
  • planets and satellites: formation
  • protoplanetary disks

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Long, F., Pinilla, P., Herczeg, G. J., Harsono, D., Dipierro, G., Pascucci, I., ... Gully-Santiago, M. (2018). Gaps and Rings in an ALMA Survey of Disks in the Taurus Star-forming Region. Astrophysical Journal, 869(1), [17]. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aae8e1

Gaps and Rings in an ALMA Survey of Disks in the Taurus Star-forming Region. / Long, Feng; Pinilla, Paola; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Harsono, Daniel; Dipierro, Giovanni; Pascucci, Ilaria; Hendler, Nathan; Tazzari, Marco; Ragusa, Enrico; Salyk, Colette; Edwards, Suzan; Lodato, Giuseppe; Van De Plas, Gerrit; Johnstone, Doug; Liu, Yao; Boehler, Yann; Cabrit, Sylvie; Manara, Carlo F.; Menard, Francois; Mulders, Gijs D.; Nisini, Brunella; Fischer, William J.; Rigliaco, Elisabetta; Banzatti, Andrea; Avenhaus, Henning; Gully-Santiago, Michael.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 869, No. 1, 17, 10.12.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Long, F, Pinilla, P, Herczeg, GJ, Harsono, D, Dipierro, G, Pascucci, I, Hendler, N, Tazzari, M, Ragusa, E, Salyk, C, Edwards, S, Lodato, G, Van De Plas, G, Johnstone, D, Liu, Y, Boehler, Y, Cabrit, S, Manara, CF, Menard, F, Mulders, GD, Nisini, B, Fischer, WJ, Rigliaco, E, Banzatti, A, Avenhaus, H & Gully-Santiago, M 2018, 'Gaps and Rings in an ALMA Survey of Disks in the Taurus Star-forming Region', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 869, no. 1, 17. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aae8e1
Long, Feng ; Pinilla, Paola ; Herczeg, Gregory J. ; Harsono, Daniel ; Dipierro, Giovanni ; Pascucci, Ilaria ; Hendler, Nathan ; Tazzari, Marco ; Ragusa, Enrico ; Salyk, Colette ; Edwards, Suzan ; Lodato, Giuseppe ; Van De Plas, Gerrit ; Johnstone, Doug ; Liu, Yao ; Boehler, Yann ; Cabrit, Sylvie ; Manara, Carlo F. ; Menard, Francois ; Mulders, Gijs D. ; Nisini, Brunella ; Fischer, William J. ; Rigliaco, Elisabetta ; Banzatti, Andrea ; Avenhaus, Henning ; Gully-Santiago, Michael. / Gaps and Rings in an ALMA Survey of Disks in the Taurus Star-forming Region. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2018 ; Vol. 869, No. 1.
@article{6b841fe369804e39a93694089137e6cc,
title = "Gaps and Rings in an ALMA Survey of Disks in the Taurus Star-forming Region",
abstract = "Rings are the most frequently revealed substructure in Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) dust observations of protoplanetary disks, but their origin is still hotly debated. In this paper, we identify dust substructures in 12 disks and measure their properties to investigate how they form. This subsample of disks is selected from a high-resolution (∼0.″12) ALMA 1.33 mm survey of 32 disks in the Taurus star-forming region, which was designed to cover a wide range of brightness and to be unbiased to previously known substructures. While axisymmetric rings and gaps are common within our sample, spiral patterns and high-contrast azimuthal asymmetries are not detected. Fits of disk models to the visibilities lead to estimates of the location and shape of gaps and rings, the flux in each disk component, and the size of the disk. The dust substructures occur across a wide range of stellar mass and disk brightness. Disks with multiple rings tend to be more massive and more extended. The correlation between gap locations and widths, the intensity contrast between rings and gaps, and the separations of rings and gaps could all be explained if most gaps are opened by low-mass planets (super-Earths and Neptunes) in the condition of low disk turbulence (α = 10-4). The gap locations are not well correlated with the expected locations of CO and N2 ice lines, so condensation fronts are unlikely to be a universal mechanism to create gaps and rings, though they may play a role in some cases.",
keywords = "circumstellar matter, planets and satellites: formation, protoplanetary disks",
author = "Feng Long and Paola Pinilla and Herczeg, {Gregory J.} and Daniel Harsono and Giovanni Dipierro and Ilaria Pascucci and Nathan Hendler and Marco Tazzari and Enrico Ragusa and Colette Salyk and Suzan Edwards and Giuseppe Lodato and {Van De Plas}, Gerrit and Doug Johnstone and Yao Liu and Yann Boehler and Sylvie Cabrit and Manara, {Carlo F.} and Francois Menard and Mulders, {Gijs D.} and Brunella Nisini and Fischer, {William J.} and Elisabetta Rigliaco and Andrea Banzatti and Henning Avenhaus and Michael Gully-Santiago",
year = "2018",
month = "12",
day = "10",
doi = "10.3847/1538-4357/aae8e1",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "869",
journal = "Astrophysical Journal",
issn = "0004-637X",
publisher = "IOP Publishing Ltd.",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Gaps and Rings in an ALMA Survey of Disks in the Taurus Star-forming Region

AU - Long, Feng

AU - Pinilla, Paola

AU - Herczeg, Gregory J.

AU - Harsono, Daniel

AU - Dipierro, Giovanni

AU - Pascucci, Ilaria

AU - Hendler, Nathan

AU - Tazzari, Marco

AU - Ragusa, Enrico

AU - Salyk, Colette

AU - Edwards, Suzan

AU - Lodato, Giuseppe

AU - Van De Plas, Gerrit

AU - Johnstone, Doug

AU - Liu, Yao

AU - Boehler, Yann

AU - Cabrit, Sylvie

AU - Manara, Carlo F.

AU - Menard, Francois

AU - Mulders, Gijs D.

AU - Nisini, Brunella

AU - Fischer, William J.

AU - Rigliaco, Elisabetta

AU - Banzatti, Andrea

AU - Avenhaus, Henning

AU - Gully-Santiago, Michael

PY - 2018/12/10

Y1 - 2018/12/10

N2 - Rings are the most frequently revealed substructure in Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) dust observations of protoplanetary disks, but their origin is still hotly debated. In this paper, we identify dust substructures in 12 disks and measure their properties to investigate how they form. This subsample of disks is selected from a high-resolution (∼0.″12) ALMA 1.33 mm survey of 32 disks in the Taurus star-forming region, which was designed to cover a wide range of brightness and to be unbiased to previously known substructures. While axisymmetric rings and gaps are common within our sample, spiral patterns and high-contrast azimuthal asymmetries are not detected. Fits of disk models to the visibilities lead to estimates of the location and shape of gaps and rings, the flux in each disk component, and the size of the disk. The dust substructures occur across a wide range of stellar mass and disk brightness. Disks with multiple rings tend to be more massive and more extended. The correlation between gap locations and widths, the intensity contrast between rings and gaps, and the separations of rings and gaps could all be explained if most gaps are opened by low-mass planets (super-Earths and Neptunes) in the condition of low disk turbulence (α = 10-4). The gap locations are not well correlated with the expected locations of CO and N2 ice lines, so condensation fronts are unlikely to be a universal mechanism to create gaps and rings, though they may play a role in some cases.

AB - Rings are the most frequently revealed substructure in Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) dust observations of protoplanetary disks, but their origin is still hotly debated. In this paper, we identify dust substructures in 12 disks and measure their properties to investigate how they form. This subsample of disks is selected from a high-resolution (∼0.″12) ALMA 1.33 mm survey of 32 disks in the Taurus star-forming region, which was designed to cover a wide range of brightness and to be unbiased to previously known substructures. While axisymmetric rings and gaps are common within our sample, spiral patterns and high-contrast azimuthal asymmetries are not detected. Fits of disk models to the visibilities lead to estimates of the location and shape of gaps and rings, the flux in each disk component, and the size of the disk. The dust substructures occur across a wide range of stellar mass and disk brightness. Disks with multiple rings tend to be more massive and more extended. The correlation between gap locations and widths, the intensity contrast between rings and gaps, and the separations of rings and gaps could all be explained if most gaps are opened by low-mass planets (super-Earths and Neptunes) in the condition of low disk turbulence (α = 10-4). The gap locations are not well correlated with the expected locations of CO and N2 ice lines, so condensation fronts are unlikely to be a universal mechanism to create gaps and rings, though they may play a role in some cases.

KW - circumstellar matter

KW - planets and satellites: formation

KW - protoplanetary disks

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85058465221&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85058465221&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3847/1538-4357/aae8e1

DO - 10.3847/1538-4357/aae8e1

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85058465221

VL - 869

JO - Astrophysical Journal

JF - Astrophysical Journal

SN - 0004-637X

IS - 1

M1 - 17

ER -