Genome divergence in two Prochlorococcus ecotypes reflects oceanic niche differentiation

Gabrielle Rocap, Frank W. Larimer, Jane Lamerdin, Stephanie Malfatti, Patrick Chain, Nathan A. Ahlgren, Andrae Arellano, Maureen Coleman, Loren Hauser, Wolfgang R. Hess, Zackary I. Johnson, Miriam Land, Debbie Lindell, Anton F. Post, Warren Regala, Manesh Shah, Stephanie L. Shaw, Claudia Steglich, Matthew Sullivan, Claire S. TingAndrew Tolonen, Eric A. Webb, Erik R. Zinser, Sallie W. Chisholm

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

779 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The marine unicellular cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus is the smallest-known oxygen-evolving autotroph. It numerically dominates the phytoplankton in the tropical and subtropical oceans, and is responsible for a significant fraction of global photosynthesis. Here we compare the genomes of two Prochlorococcus strains that span the largest evolutionary distance within the Prochlorococcus lineage and that have different minimum, maximum and optimal light intensities for growth. The high-light-adapted ecotype has the smallest genome (1,657,990 base pairs, 1,716 genes) of any known oxygenic phototroph, whereas the genome of its low-light-adapted counterpart is significantly larger, at 2,410,873 base pairs (2,275 genes). The comparative architectures of these two strains reveal dynamic genomes that are constantly changing in response to myriad selection pressures. Although the two strains have 1,350 genes in common, a significant number are not shared, and these have been differentially retained from the common ancestor, or acquired through duplication or lateral transfer. Some of these genes have obvious roles in determining the relative fitness of the ecotypes in response to key environmental variables, and hence in regulating their distribution and abundance in the oceans.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1042-1047
Number of pages6
JournalNature
Volume424
Issue number6952
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 28 2003
Externally publishedYes

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Prochlorococcus
Ecotype
Genome
Light
Oceans and Seas
Base Pairing
Genes
Phytoplankton
Photosynthesis
Cyanobacteria
Oxygen
Pressure
Growth

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Rocap, G., Larimer, F. W., Lamerdin, J., Malfatti, S., Chain, P., Ahlgren, N. A., ... Chisholm, S. W. (2003). Genome divergence in two Prochlorococcus ecotypes reflects oceanic niche differentiation. Nature, 424(6952), 1042-1047. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature01947

Genome divergence in two Prochlorococcus ecotypes reflects oceanic niche differentiation. / Rocap, Gabrielle; Larimer, Frank W.; Lamerdin, Jane; Malfatti, Stephanie; Chain, Patrick; Ahlgren, Nathan A.; Arellano, Andrae; Coleman, Maureen; Hauser, Loren; Hess, Wolfgang R.; Johnson, Zackary I.; Land, Miriam; Lindell, Debbie; Post, Anton F.; Regala, Warren; Shah, Manesh; Shaw, Stephanie L.; Steglich, Claudia; Sullivan, Matthew; Ting, Claire S.; Tolonen, Andrew; Webb, Eric A.; Zinser, Erik R.; Chisholm, Sallie W.

In: Nature, Vol. 424, No. 6952, 28.08.2003, p. 1042-1047.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Rocap, G, Larimer, FW, Lamerdin, J, Malfatti, S, Chain, P, Ahlgren, NA, Arellano, A, Coleman, M, Hauser, L, Hess, WR, Johnson, ZI, Land, M, Lindell, D, Post, AF, Regala, W, Shah, M, Shaw, SL, Steglich, C, Sullivan, M, Ting, CS, Tolonen, A, Webb, EA, Zinser, ER & Chisholm, SW 2003, 'Genome divergence in two Prochlorococcus ecotypes reflects oceanic niche differentiation', Nature, vol. 424, no. 6952, pp. 1042-1047. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature01947
Rocap G, Larimer FW, Lamerdin J, Malfatti S, Chain P, Ahlgren NA et al. Genome divergence in two Prochlorococcus ecotypes reflects oceanic niche differentiation. Nature. 2003 Aug 28;424(6952):1042-1047. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature01947
Rocap, Gabrielle ; Larimer, Frank W. ; Lamerdin, Jane ; Malfatti, Stephanie ; Chain, Patrick ; Ahlgren, Nathan A. ; Arellano, Andrae ; Coleman, Maureen ; Hauser, Loren ; Hess, Wolfgang R. ; Johnson, Zackary I. ; Land, Miriam ; Lindell, Debbie ; Post, Anton F. ; Regala, Warren ; Shah, Manesh ; Shaw, Stephanie L. ; Steglich, Claudia ; Sullivan, Matthew ; Ting, Claire S. ; Tolonen, Andrew ; Webb, Eric A. ; Zinser, Erik R. ; Chisholm, Sallie W. / Genome divergence in two Prochlorococcus ecotypes reflects oceanic niche differentiation. In: Nature. 2003 ; Vol. 424, No. 6952. pp. 1042-1047.
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N2 - The marine unicellular cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus is the smallest-known oxygen-evolving autotroph. It numerically dominates the phytoplankton in the tropical and subtropical oceans, and is responsible for a significant fraction of global photosynthesis. Here we compare the genomes of two Prochlorococcus strains that span the largest evolutionary distance within the Prochlorococcus lineage and that have different minimum, maximum and optimal light intensities for growth. The high-light-adapted ecotype has the smallest genome (1,657,990 base pairs, 1,716 genes) of any known oxygenic phototroph, whereas the genome of its low-light-adapted counterpart is significantly larger, at 2,410,873 base pairs (2,275 genes). The comparative architectures of these two strains reveal dynamic genomes that are constantly changing in response to myriad selection pressures. Although the two strains have 1,350 genes in common, a significant number are not shared, and these have been differentially retained from the common ancestor, or acquired through duplication or lateral transfer. Some of these genes have obvious roles in determining the relative fitness of the ecotypes in response to key environmental variables, and hence in regulating their distribution and abundance in the oceans.

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