Global positive expectancies of the self and adolescents' substance use avoidance: Testing a social influence mediational model

Scott C. Carvajal, Richard I. Evans, Susan G. Nash, J. Greg Getz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

29 Scopus citations


Grounded in theories of global positive expectancies and social influences of behavior, this investigation posited a model in which global positive expectancies are related to substance use as mediated by attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and intentions. Using a cohort sample (n = 525), structural equation modeling was employed to test the hypothesized predictions of future substance use. The findings suggest that, relative to adolescents with lower global positive expectancies, adolescents with higher global positive expectancies use substances less frequently over time because of their protective attitudinal and control-oriented perceptions towards that behavior. Additionally, results from the current investigation also extend prior findings on the factor structure of global positive expectancies, suggesting these expectancies can be viewed as a second-order factor representing optimism and two components of hope - agency and pathways.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)421-442
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of personality
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2002


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology

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