Globular cluster populations: First results from S4G early-type galaxies

Dennis F Zaritsky, Manuel Aravena, E. Athanassoula, Albert Bosma, Sébastien Comerón, Bruce G. Elmegreen, Santiago Erroz-Ferrer, Dimitri A. Gadotti, Joannah L. Hinz, Luis C. Ho, Benne Holwerda, Johan H. Knapen, Jarkko Laine, Eija Laurikainen, Juan Carlos Muñoz-Mateos, Heikki Salo, Kartik Sheth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Using 3.6 μm images of 97 early-type galaxies, we develop and verify methodology to measure globular cluster populations from the S4G survey images. We find that (1) the ratio, T N, of the number of clusters, N CL, to parent galaxy stellar mass, M, rises weakly with M for early-type galaxies with M 1010 M when we calculate galaxy masses using a universal stellar initial mass function (IMF) but that the dependence of T N on M is removed entirely once we correct for the recently uncovered systematic variation of IMF with M and (2) for M < 1010 M , there is no trend between N CL and M, the scatter in T N is significantly larger (approaching two orders of magnitude), and there is evidence to support a previous, independent suggestion of two families of galaxies. The behavior of N CL in the lower-mass systems is more difficult to measure because these systems are inherently cluster-poor, but our results may add to previous evidence that large variations in cluster formation and destruction efficiencies are to be found among low-mass galaxies. The average fraction of stellar mass in clusters is 0.0014 for M > 1010 M and can be as large as 0.02 for less massive galaxies. These are the first results from the S4G sample of galaxies and will be enhanced by the sample of early-type galaxies now being added to S4G and complemented by the study of later-type galaxies within S4G.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number159
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume799
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2015

Fingerprint

globular clusters
galaxies
methodology
stellar mass

Keywords

  • galaxies: evolution
  • galaxies: formation
  • galaxies: star clusters: general
  • galaxies: stellar content

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics

Cite this

Zaritsky, D. F., Aravena, M., Athanassoula, E., Bosma, A., Comerón, S., Elmegreen, B. G., ... Sheth, K. (2015). Globular cluster populations: First results from S4G early-type galaxies. Astrophysical Journal, 799(2), [159]. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/799/2/159

Globular cluster populations : First results from S4G early-type galaxies. / Zaritsky, Dennis F; Aravena, Manuel; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert; Comerón, Sébastien; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Hinz, Joannah L.; Ho, Luis C.; Holwerda, Benne; Knapen, Johan H.; Laine, Jarkko; Laurikainen, Eija; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos; Salo, Heikki; Sheth, Kartik.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 799, No. 2, 159, 01.02.2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Zaritsky, DF, Aravena, M, Athanassoula, E, Bosma, A, Comerón, S, Elmegreen, BG, Erroz-Ferrer, S, Gadotti, DA, Hinz, JL, Ho, LC, Holwerda, B, Knapen, JH, Laine, J, Laurikainen, E, Muñoz-Mateos, JC, Salo, H & Sheth, K 2015, 'Globular cluster populations: First results from S4G early-type galaxies', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 799, no. 2, 159. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/799/2/159
Zaritsky DF, Aravena M, Athanassoula E, Bosma A, Comerón S, Elmegreen BG et al. Globular cluster populations: First results from S4G early-type galaxies. Astrophysical Journal. 2015 Feb 1;799(2). 159. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/799/2/159
Zaritsky, Dennis F ; Aravena, Manuel ; Athanassoula, E. ; Bosma, Albert ; Comerón, Sébastien ; Elmegreen, Bruce G. ; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago ; Gadotti, Dimitri A. ; Hinz, Joannah L. ; Ho, Luis C. ; Holwerda, Benne ; Knapen, Johan H. ; Laine, Jarkko ; Laurikainen, Eija ; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos ; Salo, Heikki ; Sheth, Kartik. / Globular cluster populations : First results from S4G early-type galaxies. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2015 ; Vol. 799, No. 2.
@article{e7780f7123644790abd50c681202a351,
title = "Globular cluster populations: First results from S4G early-type galaxies",
abstract = "Using 3.6 μm images of 97 early-type galaxies, we develop and verify methodology to measure globular cluster populations from the S4G survey images. We find that (1) the ratio, T N, of the number of clusters, N CL, to parent galaxy stellar mass, M, rises weakly with M for early-type galaxies with M 1010 M when we calculate galaxy masses using a universal stellar initial mass function (IMF) but that the dependence of T N on M is removed entirely once we correct for the recently uncovered systematic variation of IMF with M and (2) for M < 1010 M , there is no trend between N CL and M, the scatter in T N is significantly larger (approaching two orders of magnitude), and there is evidence to support a previous, independent suggestion of two families of galaxies. The behavior of N CL in the lower-mass systems is more difficult to measure because these systems are inherently cluster-poor, but our results may add to previous evidence that large variations in cluster formation and destruction efficiencies are to be found among low-mass galaxies. The average fraction of stellar mass in clusters is 0.0014 for M > 1010 M and can be as large as 0.02 for less massive galaxies. These are the first results from the S4G sample of galaxies and will be enhanced by the sample of early-type galaxies now being added to S4G and complemented by the study of later-type galaxies within S4G.",
keywords = "galaxies: evolution, galaxies: formation, galaxies: star clusters: general, galaxies: stellar content",
author = "Zaritsky, {Dennis F} and Manuel Aravena and E. Athanassoula and Albert Bosma and S{\'e}bastien Comer{\'o}n and Elmegreen, {Bruce G.} and Santiago Erroz-Ferrer and Gadotti, {Dimitri A.} and Hinz, {Joannah L.} and Ho, {Luis C.} and Benne Holwerda and Knapen, {Johan H.} and Jarkko Laine and Eija Laurikainen and Mu{\~n}oz-Mateos, {Juan Carlos} and Heikki Salo and Kartik Sheth",
year = "2015",
month = "2",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1088/0004-637X/799/2/159",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "799",
journal = "Astrophysical Journal",
issn = "0004-637X",
publisher = "IOP Publishing Ltd.",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Globular cluster populations

T2 - First results from S4G early-type galaxies

AU - Zaritsky, Dennis F

AU - Aravena, Manuel

AU - Athanassoula, E.

AU - Bosma, Albert

AU - Comerón, Sébastien

AU - Elmegreen, Bruce G.

AU - Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago

AU - Gadotti, Dimitri A.

AU - Hinz, Joannah L.

AU - Ho, Luis C.

AU - Holwerda, Benne

AU - Knapen, Johan H.

AU - Laine, Jarkko

AU - Laurikainen, Eija

AU - Muñoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos

AU - Salo, Heikki

AU - Sheth, Kartik

PY - 2015/2/1

Y1 - 2015/2/1

N2 - Using 3.6 μm images of 97 early-type galaxies, we develop and verify methodology to measure globular cluster populations from the S4G survey images. We find that (1) the ratio, T N, of the number of clusters, N CL, to parent galaxy stellar mass, M, rises weakly with M for early-type galaxies with M 1010 M when we calculate galaxy masses using a universal stellar initial mass function (IMF) but that the dependence of T N on M is removed entirely once we correct for the recently uncovered systematic variation of IMF with M and (2) for M < 1010 M , there is no trend between N CL and M, the scatter in T N is significantly larger (approaching two orders of magnitude), and there is evidence to support a previous, independent suggestion of two families of galaxies. The behavior of N CL in the lower-mass systems is more difficult to measure because these systems are inherently cluster-poor, but our results may add to previous evidence that large variations in cluster formation and destruction efficiencies are to be found among low-mass galaxies. The average fraction of stellar mass in clusters is 0.0014 for M > 1010 M and can be as large as 0.02 for less massive galaxies. These are the first results from the S4G sample of galaxies and will be enhanced by the sample of early-type galaxies now being added to S4G and complemented by the study of later-type galaxies within S4G.

AB - Using 3.6 μm images of 97 early-type galaxies, we develop and verify methodology to measure globular cluster populations from the S4G survey images. We find that (1) the ratio, T N, of the number of clusters, N CL, to parent galaxy stellar mass, M, rises weakly with M for early-type galaxies with M 1010 M when we calculate galaxy masses using a universal stellar initial mass function (IMF) but that the dependence of T N on M is removed entirely once we correct for the recently uncovered systematic variation of IMF with M and (2) for M < 1010 M , there is no trend between N CL and M, the scatter in T N is significantly larger (approaching two orders of magnitude), and there is evidence to support a previous, independent suggestion of two families of galaxies. The behavior of N CL in the lower-mass systems is more difficult to measure because these systems are inherently cluster-poor, but our results may add to previous evidence that large variations in cluster formation and destruction efficiencies are to be found among low-mass galaxies. The average fraction of stellar mass in clusters is 0.0014 for M > 1010 M and can be as large as 0.02 for less massive galaxies. These are the first results from the S4G sample of galaxies and will be enhanced by the sample of early-type galaxies now being added to S4G and complemented by the study of later-type galaxies within S4G.

KW - galaxies: evolution

KW - galaxies: formation

KW - galaxies: star clusters: general

KW - galaxies: stellar content

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84922249085&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84922249085&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1088/0004-637X/799/2/159

DO - 10.1088/0004-637X/799/2/159

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84922249085

VL - 799

JO - Astrophysical Journal

JF - Astrophysical Journal

SN - 0004-637X

IS - 2

M1 - 159

ER -