Glutathione conjugates of tert-butyl-hydroquinone, a metabolite of the urinary tract tumor promoter 3-tert-butyl-hydroxyanisole, are toxic to kidney and bladder

Melanie M C G Peters, Maria I. Rivera, Thomas W. Jones, Terrence Monks, Serrine Lau

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Abstract

3-tert-Butyl-4-hydroxyanisole and tert-butyl-hydroquinone (TBHQ) are antioxidants known to promote renal and bladder carcinogenesis in the rat, although the mechanisms of these effects are unclear. Because glutathione (GSH) conjugates of a variety of hydroquinones are nephrotoxic, and because 2-tert-butyl-5-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone [5-(GSyl)-TBHQ], 2-tert-butyl- 6-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone [6-(GSyl)TBHQ], and 2-tert-butyl-3,6-bis- (glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone [3,6-bis-(GSyl)-TBHQ] have been identified recently as metabolites of TBHQ in the male rat, we investigated the effects of these metabolites in the male rat. At the highest dose tested (400 μmol/kg, i.v.) 5-(GSyl)TBHQ and 6-(GSyl)TBHQ caused 2-fold increases in the urinary excretion of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase and alkaline phosphatase, and pigments arising from the polymerization of metabolites were deposited in the kidney. 3,6-bis-(GSyl)TBHQ (200 μmol/kg) was the most potent of the GSH conjugates tested and produced significant increases in the urinary excretion of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, and glucose (2-, 2-, 22-, and 11-fold increases, respectively). Alterations in the biochemical parameters correlated with the degree of single cell and tubular necrosis in the S3-M segment of the proximal tubule, as observed by light microscopy. In addition to nephrotoxicity, 3,6-bis-(GSyl)TBHQ increased the bladder wet weight 2-fold and caused severe hemorrhaging of the bladder. The half-wave oxidation potentials of 5-(GSyl)TBHQ and 6-(GSyl)TBHQ were similar to that of TBHQ, whereas the half-wave oxidation potential of 3,6- bis-(GSyl)TBHQ was ~100 mV higher than that of TBHQ. The TBHQ-GSH conjugates also catalyzed the formation of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, indicating that GSH conjugation does not impair the redox activity of TBHQ. Because some chemicals may induce carcinogenesis by a mechanism involving cytotoxicity followed by sustained regenerative hyperplasia, our results suggest that the toxicity of GSH conjugates of TBHQ to kidney and bladder may contribute to the promoting effect of 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole and TBHQ in these tissues.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1006-1011
Number of pages6
JournalCancer Research
Volume56
Issue number5
StatePublished - Mar 1 1996
Externally publishedYes

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Poisons
Urinary Tract
Carcinogens
Glutathione
Urinary Bladder
Kidney
hydroquinone
gamma-Glutamyltransferase
Alkaline Phosphatase
Carcinogenesis
Hydroquinones

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology

Cite this

Glutathione conjugates of tert-butyl-hydroquinone, a metabolite of the urinary tract tumor promoter 3-tert-butyl-hydroxyanisole, are toxic to kidney and bladder. / Peters, Melanie M C G; Rivera, Maria I.; Jones, Thomas W.; Monks, Terrence; Lau, Serrine.

In: Cancer Research, Vol. 56, No. 5, 01.03.1996, p. 1006-1011.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "3-tert-Butyl-4-hydroxyanisole and tert-butyl-hydroquinone (TBHQ) are antioxidants known to promote renal and bladder carcinogenesis in the rat, although the mechanisms of these effects are unclear. Because glutathione (GSH) conjugates of a variety of hydroquinones are nephrotoxic, and because 2-tert-butyl-5-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone [5-(GSyl)-TBHQ], 2-tert-butyl- 6-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone [6-(GSyl)TBHQ], and 2-tert-butyl-3,6-bis- (glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone [3,6-bis-(GSyl)-TBHQ] have been identified recently as metabolites of TBHQ in the male rat, we investigated the effects of these metabolites in the male rat. At the highest dose tested (400 μmol/kg, i.v.) 5-(GSyl)TBHQ and 6-(GSyl)TBHQ caused 2-fold increases in the urinary excretion of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase and alkaline phosphatase, and pigments arising from the polymerization of metabolites were deposited in the kidney. 3,6-bis-(GSyl)TBHQ (200 μmol/kg) was the most potent of the GSH conjugates tested and produced significant increases in the urinary excretion of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, and glucose (2-, 2-, 22-, and 11-fold increases, respectively). Alterations in the biochemical parameters correlated with the degree of single cell and tubular necrosis in the S3-M segment of the proximal tubule, as observed by light microscopy. In addition to nephrotoxicity, 3,6-bis-(GSyl)TBHQ increased the bladder wet weight 2-fold and caused severe hemorrhaging of the bladder. The half-wave oxidation potentials of 5-(GSyl)TBHQ and 6-(GSyl)TBHQ were similar to that of TBHQ, whereas the half-wave oxidation potential of 3,6- bis-(GSyl)TBHQ was ~100 mV higher than that of TBHQ. The TBHQ-GSH conjugates also catalyzed the formation of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, indicating that GSH conjugation does not impair the redox activity of TBHQ. Because some chemicals may induce carcinogenesis by a mechanism involving cytotoxicity followed by sustained regenerative hyperplasia, our results suggest that the toxicity of GSH conjugates of TBHQ to kidney and bladder may contribute to the promoting effect of 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole and TBHQ in these tissues.",
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N2 - 3-tert-Butyl-4-hydroxyanisole and tert-butyl-hydroquinone (TBHQ) are antioxidants known to promote renal and bladder carcinogenesis in the rat, although the mechanisms of these effects are unclear. Because glutathione (GSH) conjugates of a variety of hydroquinones are nephrotoxic, and because 2-tert-butyl-5-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone [5-(GSyl)-TBHQ], 2-tert-butyl- 6-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone [6-(GSyl)TBHQ], and 2-tert-butyl-3,6-bis- (glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone [3,6-bis-(GSyl)-TBHQ] have been identified recently as metabolites of TBHQ in the male rat, we investigated the effects of these metabolites in the male rat. At the highest dose tested (400 μmol/kg, i.v.) 5-(GSyl)TBHQ and 6-(GSyl)TBHQ caused 2-fold increases in the urinary excretion of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase and alkaline phosphatase, and pigments arising from the polymerization of metabolites were deposited in the kidney. 3,6-bis-(GSyl)TBHQ (200 μmol/kg) was the most potent of the GSH conjugates tested and produced significant increases in the urinary excretion of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, and glucose (2-, 2-, 22-, and 11-fold increases, respectively). Alterations in the biochemical parameters correlated with the degree of single cell and tubular necrosis in the S3-M segment of the proximal tubule, as observed by light microscopy. In addition to nephrotoxicity, 3,6-bis-(GSyl)TBHQ increased the bladder wet weight 2-fold and caused severe hemorrhaging of the bladder. The half-wave oxidation potentials of 5-(GSyl)TBHQ and 6-(GSyl)TBHQ were similar to that of TBHQ, whereas the half-wave oxidation potential of 3,6- bis-(GSyl)TBHQ was ~100 mV higher than that of TBHQ. The TBHQ-GSH conjugates also catalyzed the formation of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, indicating that GSH conjugation does not impair the redox activity of TBHQ. Because some chemicals may induce carcinogenesis by a mechanism involving cytotoxicity followed by sustained regenerative hyperplasia, our results suggest that the toxicity of GSH conjugates of TBHQ to kidney and bladder may contribute to the promoting effect of 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole and TBHQ in these tissues.

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