Gradual decline in the age-adjusted in-hospital mortality rate from STEMI-related cardiogenic shock irrespective of cause, race or gender with persistent higher mortality rates in women despite multivariate adjustment

Mohammad Reza Movahed, Muhammad F. Khan, Mehrtash Hashemzadeh, Mehrnoosh Hashemzadeh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Scopus citations


Background. Recent improvements in the care of critically ill patients with cardiogenic shock (CS) should be associated with improved outcomes. The goal of this study was to evaluate the trends of age-adjusted mortality rates for all-cause and ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)-related CS in the United States. Methods. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database was utilized to calculate the age-adjusted mortality rate of all-cause and STEMI-related CS from 1996 to 2006. We used specific ICD- 9 codes for CS and STEMI based on race and gender. Results. We found a gradual decrease in mortality over the 10-year period in patients suffering from all causes or STEMI-related CS irrespective of gender and race with a persistently higher mortality rates in women and African Americans. However, after multivariate adjustment, only female gender remains associated with persistently higher mortality. The age-adjusted mortality rate from STEMI-related CS in women was 2.2% in 1996, with a gradual reduction to the lowest level of 1.7% in 2006 (P<.01). Likewise, the age-adjusted mortality rate from STEMI-related CS in men was 1.7% in 1996, which declined to the lowest level of 1.4% in 2006 (P<.01). Conclusion. Regardless of gender and race, age-adjusted in-hospital mortality is gradually declining in patients presenting with all causes or STEMI-related CS. However, as compared to men, women suffer from persistently higher mortality rates in the setting of STEMI-related CS despite multivariate adjustment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)7-12
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Invasive Cardiology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014



  • Acute coronary syndrome
  • Acute myocardial infarction
  • Cardiogenic shock
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Coronary artery disease incidence
  • Epidemiology
  • ST-elevation myocardial infarction
  • Shock

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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