Happy together? How using nonstandard workers affects exit, voice, and loyalty among standard employees

Alison Davis-Blake, Joseph P Broschak, Elizabeth George

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

164 Scopus citations


We examined how a blended workforce (one with "standard" and "nonstandard" workers in the same jobs) affected exit, "voice," and loyalty among standard employees. We found that workforce blending worsened relations between managers and employees, decreased standard employees' loyalty, and increased their interest both in leaving their organizations and in exercising voice through unionization. However, these effects were contingent on whether the nonstandard workers were temporary or contract and on the salary and responsibilities of the standard employees.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)475-485
Number of pages11
JournalAcademy of Management Journal
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2003
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Business, Management and Accounting(all)
  • Business and International Management
  • Management of Technology and Innovation
  • Strategy and Management

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