Health care costs of formula-feeding in the first year of life

Thomas M. Ball, Anne L Wright

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

207 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective. To determine the excess cost of health care services for three illnesses in formula-fed infants in the first year of life, after adjusting for potential confounders. Methods. Frequency of health service utilization for three illnesses (lower respiratory tract illnesses, otitis media, and gastrointestinal illness) in the first year of life was assessed in relation to duration of exclusive breastfeeding in the Tucson Children's Respiratory Study (n = 944) and the Dundee Community Study [Scottish study, n = 644). Infants in both studies were healthy at birth and represented nonselected, population-based samples. Children were classified as never breastfed, partially breastfed, or exclusively breastfed, based on their feeding status during the first 3 months of life. Frequency of office visits and hospitalizations for the three illnesses was adjusted for maternal education and maternal smoking, using analysis of variance. Cost estimates, from the perspective of the health care provider/payer, were based on the direct medical costs during 1995 within a large managed care health care system. Results. In the first year of life, after adjusting for confounders, there were 2033 excess office visits, 212 excess days of hospitalization, and 609 excess prescriptions for these three illnesses per 1000 never-breastfed infants compared with 1000 infants exclusively breastfed for at least 3 months. These additional health care services cost the managed care health system between $331 and $475 per never-breastfed infant during the first year of life. Conclusions. In addition to having more illnesses, formula-fed infants cost the health care system money. Health care plans will likely realize substantial savings, as well as providing improved care, by supporting and promoting exclusive breastfeeding.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)870-876
Number of pages7
JournalPediatrics
Volume103
Issue number4 II
StatePublished - Apr 1999

Fingerprint

Health Care Costs
Health Services
Costs and Cost Analysis
Office Visits
Managed Care Programs
Breast Feeding
Delivery of Health Care
Hospitalization
Mothers
Infant Formula
Otitis Media
Health Personnel
Respiratory System
Prescriptions
Analysis of Variance
Smoking
Parturition
Education
Health
Population

Keywords

  • Breastfeeding
  • Cost analysis
  • Gastrointestinal illness
  • Health maintenance organization
  • Infant feeding
  • Lower respiratory tract illness
  • Managed care plan
  • Otitis media

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Cite this

Health care costs of formula-feeding in the first year of life. / Ball, Thomas M.; Wright, Anne L.

In: Pediatrics, Vol. 103, No. 4 II, 04.1999, p. 870-876.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ball, Thomas M. ; Wright, Anne L. / Health care costs of formula-feeding in the first year of life. In: Pediatrics. 1999 ; Vol. 103, No. 4 II. pp. 870-876.
@article{3899e9e186b74618b464d64ffa6ac740,
title = "Health care costs of formula-feeding in the first year of life",
abstract = "Objective. To determine the excess cost of health care services for three illnesses in formula-fed infants in the first year of life, after adjusting for potential confounders. Methods. Frequency of health service utilization for three illnesses (lower respiratory tract illnesses, otitis media, and gastrointestinal illness) in the first year of life was assessed in relation to duration of exclusive breastfeeding in the Tucson Children's Respiratory Study (n = 944) and the Dundee Community Study [Scottish study, n = 644). Infants in both studies were healthy at birth and represented nonselected, population-based samples. Children were classified as never breastfed, partially breastfed, or exclusively breastfed, based on their feeding status during the first 3 months of life. Frequency of office visits and hospitalizations for the three illnesses was adjusted for maternal education and maternal smoking, using analysis of variance. Cost estimates, from the perspective of the health care provider/payer, were based on the direct medical costs during 1995 within a large managed care health care system. Results. In the first year of life, after adjusting for confounders, there were 2033 excess office visits, 212 excess days of hospitalization, and 609 excess prescriptions for these three illnesses per 1000 never-breastfed infants compared with 1000 infants exclusively breastfed for at least 3 months. These additional health care services cost the managed care health system between $331 and $475 per never-breastfed infant during the first year of life. Conclusions. In addition to having more illnesses, formula-fed infants cost the health care system money. Health care plans will likely realize substantial savings, as well as providing improved care, by supporting and promoting exclusive breastfeeding.",
keywords = "Breastfeeding, Cost analysis, Gastrointestinal illness, Health maintenance organization, Infant feeding, Lower respiratory tract illness, Managed care plan, Otitis media",
author = "Ball, {Thomas M.} and Wright, {Anne L}",
year = "1999",
month = "4",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "103",
pages = "870--876",
journal = "Pediatrics",
issn = "0031-4005",
publisher = "American Academy of Pediatrics",
number = "4 II",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Health care costs of formula-feeding in the first year of life

AU - Ball, Thomas M.

AU - Wright, Anne L

PY - 1999/4

Y1 - 1999/4

N2 - Objective. To determine the excess cost of health care services for three illnesses in formula-fed infants in the first year of life, after adjusting for potential confounders. Methods. Frequency of health service utilization for three illnesses (lower respiratory tract illnesses, otitis media, and gastrointestinal illness) in the first year of life was assessed in relation to duration of exclusive breastfeeding in the Tucson Children's Respiratory Study (n = 944) and the Dundee Community Study [Scottish study, n = 644). Infants in both studies were healthy at birth and represented nonselected, population-based samples. Children were classified as never breastfed, partially breastfed, or exclusively breastfed, based on their feeding status during the first 3 months of life. Frequency of office visits and hospitalizations for the three illnesses was adjusted for maternal education and maternal smoking, using analysis of variance. Cost estimates, from the perspective of the health care provider/payer, were based on the direct medical costs during 1995 within a large managed care health care system. Results. In the first year of life, after adjusting for confounders, there were 2033 excess office visits, 212 excess days of hospitalization, and 609 excess prescriptions for these three illnesses per 1000 never-breastfed infants compared with 1000 infants exclusively breastfed for at least 3 months. These additional health care services cost the managed care health system between $331 and $475 per never-breastfed infant during the first year of life. Conclusions. In addition to having more illnesses, formula-fed infants cost the health care system money. Health care plans will likely realize substantial savings, as well as providing improved care, by supporting and promoting exclusive breastfeeding.

AB - Objective. To determine the excess cost of health care services for three illnesses in formula-fed infants in the first year of life, after adjusting for potential confounders. Methods. Frequency of health service utilization for three illnesses (lower respiratory tract illnesses, otitis media, and gastrointestinal illness) in the first year of life was assessed in relation to duration of exclusive breastfeeding in the Tucson Children's Respiratory Study (n = 944) and the Dundee Community Study [Scottish study, n = 644). Infants in both studies were healthy at birth and represented nonselected, population-based samples. Children were classified as never breastfed, partially breastfed, or exclusively breastfed, based on their feeding status during the first 3 months of life. Frequency of office visits and hospitalizations for the three illnesses was adjusted for maternal education and maternal smoking, using analysis of variance. Cost estimates, from the perspective of the health care provider/payer, were based on the direct medical costs during 1995 within a large managed care health care system. Results. In the first year of life, after adjusting for confounders, there were 2033 excess office visits, 212 excess days of hospitalization, and 609 excess prescriptions for these three illnesses per 1000 never-breastfed infants compared with 1000 infants exclusively breastfed for at least 3 months. These additional health care services cost the managed care health system between $331 and $475 per never-breastfed infant during the first year of life. Conclusions. In addition to having more illnesses, formula-fed infants cost the health care system money. Health care plans will likely realize substantial savings, as well as providing improved care, by supporting and promoting exclusive breastfeeding.

KW - Breastfeeding

KW - Cost analysis

KW - Gastrointestinal illness

KW - Health maintenance organization

KW - Infant feeding

KW - Lower respiratory tract illness

KW - Managed care plan

KW - Otitis media

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0032990199&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0032990199&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 10103324

AN - SCOPUS:0032990199

VL - 103

SP - 870

EP - 876

JO - Pediatrics

JF - Pediatrics

SN - 0031-4005

IS - 4 II

ER -