Hemorrhagic and necrotizing hepatitis associated with administration of a modified live canine adenovirus-2 vaccine in a maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus)

Julie Swenson, Kathryn Orr, Gregory A. Bradley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Scopus citations


A 15-yr-old, female, maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) was euthanized after presenting semicomatose with severe, uncontrolled frank hemorrhage from her rectum 6 days following a routine physical examination and vaccination. Histopathology indicated severe hemorrhagic and necrotizing hepatitis with intranuclear basophilic inclusion bodies in the liver that were thought to be consistent with adenoviral infection. Further classification by polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemical staining, virus isolation, and electron microscopy confirmed the etiologic agent to be canine adenovirus-2. A representative sample of the vaccine that had been used was submitted and sequenced along with the virus isolated from the maned wolf. The sequencing of the etiologic agent that had been isolated from the maned wolf was determined to be the same as the strain of virus used in the production of the modified live vaccine that had been administered 6 days prior to death. From this information, the diagnosis of vaccine-induced adenoviral hepatitis was made. This is the first confirmed case of vaccine-induced canine adenoviral hepatitis in a maned wolf.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)375-383
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1 2012



  • Adenoviral hepatitis
  • Chrysocyon brachyurus
  • maned wolf
  • modified live virus vaccine
  • vaccine-induced

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • veterinary(all)

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