In many respects, HSV-1 is the prototypic herpes virus. However, HSV-1 also serves as an excellent model system to study genome transactions, including DNA replication, homologous recombination, and the interaction of DNA replication enzymes with DNA damage. Like eukaryotic chromosomes, the HSV-1 genome contains multiple origins of replication. Replication of the HSV-1 genome is mediated by the concerted action of several virus-encoded proteins that are thought to assemble into a multiprotein complex. Several host-encoded factors have also been implicated in viral DNA replication. Furthermore, replication of the HSV-1 genome is known to be closely associated with homologous recombination that, like in many cellular organisms, may function in recombinational repair. Finally, recent data have shed some light on the interaction of essential HSV-1 replication proteins, specifically its DNA polymerase and DNA helicases, with damaged DNA.