High genetic risk individuals benefit less from resistance exercise intervention

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Abstract

Objectives:Genetic factors have an important role in body mass index (BMI) variation, and also likely have a role in the weight loss and body composition response to physical activity/exercise. With the recent identification of BMI-associated genetic variants, it is possible to investigate the interaction of these genetic factors with exercise on body composition outcomes.Methods:In a block-randomized clinical trial of resistance exercise among women (n=148), we examined whether the putative effect of exercise on weight and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-derived body composition measurements differs according to genetic risk for obesity. Approximately one-half of the sample was randomized to an intervention consisting of a supervised, intensive, resistance exercise program, lasting 1 year. Genetic risk for obesity was defined as a genetic risk score (GRS) comprised of 21 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) known to be associated with BMI variation. We examined the interaction of exercise intervention and the GRS on anthropometric and body composition measurements after 1 year of the exercise intervention.Results:We found statistically significant interactions for body weight (P=0.01), body fat (P=0.01), body fat % (P=0.02) and abdominal fat (P=0.02), whereby the putative effect of exercise is greater among those with a lower level of genetic risk for obesity. No single SNP appears to be a major driver of these interactions.Conclusions:The weight-loss response to resistance exercise, including changes in body composition, differs according to an individual's genetic risk for obesity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1371-1375
Number of pages5
JournalInternational Journal of Obesity
Volume39
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 10 2015

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

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