High-Risk Factors in Symptomatic Patients Undergoing Carotid Artery Stenting with Distal Protection: Buffalo Risk Assessment Scale (BRASS)

Andrew A. Fanous, Sabareesh K. Natarajan, Patrick K. Jowdy, Travis M Dumont, Maxim Mokin, Jihnhee Yu, Adam Goldstein, Michael M. Wach, James L. Budny, L. Nelson Hopkins, Kenneth V. Snyder, Adnan H. Siddiqui, Elad I. Levy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Scopus citations

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Demographics and vascular anatomy may play an important role in predicting periprocedural complications in symptomatic patients undergoing carotid artery stenting (CAS). OBJECTIVE: To predict factors associated with increased risk of complications in symptomatic patients undergoing CAS and to devise a CAS scoring system that predicts such complications in this patient population. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted that included patients who underwent CAS for symptomatic carotid stenosis during a 3-year period. Demographics and anatomic characteristics were subsequently correlated with 30-day outcome measures. RESULTS: A total of 221 patients were included in the study. The cumulative rate of periprocedural complications was 7.2%, including stroke (3.2%), myocardial infarction (3.2%), and death (1.4%). Renal disease increased the risk of all complications. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score ≥10 at presentation, difficult femoral access, and diseased calcified aortic arch increased the risk of stroke and all complications. Type III aortic arch correlated with increased risk of stroke. Pseudo-occlusion and concentric calcification of the carotid artery increased the risk of myocardial infarction, death, and all complications. Carotid tortuosity and anatomy hostile to the deployment of distal protection devices increased the risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, death, and all complications. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that CAS should be avoided in patients with multiple anatomic risk factors. High presenting National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score and renal disease also increase the complication risk. The CAS scoring system devised here is simple, reproducible, and clinically valuable in predicting complications risk in symptomatic patients undergoing CAS. ABBREVIATIONS: BRASS, Buffalo Risk Assessment Scale CAS, carotid artery stenting CCA, common carotid artery CEA, carotid endarterectomy CTA, computed tomographic angiogram ICA, internal carotid artery MI, myocardial infarction NASCET, North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial NIHSS, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)531-542
Number of pages12
JournalNeurosurgery
Volume77
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 21 2015

Keywords

  • Carotid artery stenting
  • Demographic
  • Risk factors
  • Symptomatic carotid stenosis
  • Vascular anatomy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Surgery

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    Fanous, A. A., Natarajan, S. K., Jowdy, P. K., Dumont, T. M., Mokin, M., Yu, J., Goldstein, A., Wach, M. M., Budny, J. L., Hopkins, L. N., Snyder, K. V., Siddiqui, A. H., & Levy, E. I. (2015). High-Risk Factors in Symptomatic Patients Undergoing Carotid Artery Stenting with Distal Protection: Buffalo Risk Assessment Scale (BRASS). Neurosurgery, 77(4), 531-542. https://doi.org/10.1227/NEU.0000000000000871